Resultado da pesquisa (7)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Araújo J.A.S

#1 - Neonatal mortality associated with sodium monofluoracetate in kids fed with colostrum from goats ingesting Amorimia septentrionalis

Abstract in English:

Sudden deaths after colostrum ingestion in kids and lambs born to mothers grazing in areas with Amorimia septentrionalis have been reported in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region, in Paraíba state. This study aimed to determine whether the sodium monofluoracetate (MF) contained in A. septentrionalis is eliminated in milk, causing the death of kids. After confirming gestation on the 25th day after mating, 26 goats were randomly distributed into three groups. In Group 1, eight goats received fresh leaves of A. septentrionalis in daily doses of 1g/kg body weight, administered at three different periods during gestation: from days 91 to 100, 116 to 125, and from day 140 until delivery day. In Group 2, consisting of 10 females, eight goats received 1g/kg body weight of A. septentrionalis dried and milled leaves, fed daily from the 140th day of gestation until delivery. The other two goats of this group did not ingest the plant during gestation and after delivery the colostrum supplied to their kids was replaced by colostrum of goats from that same group that had ingested the plant. Eight goats from Group 3 (control) did not ingest A. septentrionalis. Seven goats from Group 1 showed signs of poisoning from 2nd to 8th days of plant administration, in all periods, and recovered within 7 to 12 days. Another goat presented severe clinical signs and was submitted to euthanasia in extremis. Two goats aborted. Four kids, from two goats, received colostrum and, after 15 minutes, presented depression, breathing wheezing, lateral recumbence, bleating, and death. Two goats gave birth at night; the two kids were found dead and, at necropsy, it was verified that they were born alive. The last goat in this group gave birth to two kids which showed no signs of poisoning after colostrum ingestion. In Group 2, the eight goats that ingested dry leaves of the plant presented tachycardia and engorgement of the jugular veins; six aborted, and the kids of the other two goats died immediately after delivery without ingesting colostrum. The three kids of the two goats that did not ingest the plant during gestation did not show signs of poisoning after ingesting colostrum from the goats that had ingested the plant. In Group 3, all females kidded normally and the kids showed no signs of poisoning. Ten leaf samples of A. septentrionalis contained 0.00074% ±0.00018 MF. These results demonstrate that the MF of A. septentrionalis is eliminated in colostrum and may cause the death of kids. As in previous reports, the plant also caused abortion.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Mortes súbitas, após a ingestão do colostro, em cabritos e cordeiros nascidos de mães que pastejam em áreas com Amorimia septentrionalis são relatadas no semiárido da Paraíba. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se o monofluoracetato de sódio (MF) contido em Amorimia septentrionalis é eliminado pelo leite, causando a morte dos cabritos. Após a confirmação da gestação no 25º dia após a cobertura, 26 cabras foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em três grupos. No Grupo 1, oito cabras receberam folhas frescas de A. septentrionalis em doses diárias de 1g/kg de peso vivo, administradas em três períodos diferentes durante a gestação: entre os dias 91 a 100, 116 a 125 e do 140º dia até o parto. No Grupo 2, composto por 10 fêmeas, oito cabras receberam 1g/kg de peso vivo de folhas secas e trituradas de A. septentrionalis, fornecida diariamente do 140º dia de gestação até o parto. As outras duas cabras desse grupo não ingeriram a planta durante a gestação e, ao parirem, o colostro fornecido aos seus cabritos foi substituído pelo colostro de cabras, desse mesmo grupo, que ingeriram a planta. Oito cabras do Grupo 3 (controle) não ingeriram A. septentrionalis. Sete cabras do Grupo 1 apresentaram sinais de intoxicação entre o 2º e 8º dia de administração da planta, em todos os períodos, e se recuperavam em 7 a 12 dias. Outra apresentou sinais clínicos graves e foi eutanasiada in extremis. Duas cabras abortaram. Quatro cabritos, oriundos de duas cabras, receberam colostro e, após 15 minutos, apresentaram depressão, respiração ofegante, decúbito lateral, berros e morte. Dois cabritos, nascidos de duas cabras que pariram durante a noite, foram encontrados mortos e os achados de necropsia permitem afirmar que nasceram vivos. A outra cabra desse grupo pariu dois cabritos que, mesmo mamando o colostro, não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação. No Grupo 2, as oito cabras que ingeriram a planta seca apresentaram taquicardia e ingurgitamento das veias jugulares; seis abortaram e os cabritos das outras duas morreram imediatamente após o parto, sem ingerir colostro. Os três filhotes das duas cabras que não ingeriram a planta durante a gestação não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação após ter ingerido colostro das cabras que tinham ingerido a planta. No Grupo 3, todas as fêmeas pariram normalmente e os filhotes não apresentaram sinais de intoxicação. Dez amostras de folhas de A. septentrionalis continham 0,00074% ±0,00018 de MF. Estes resultados demonstram que o MF de A. septentrionalis, além de causar abortos, é eliminado pelo colostro podendo causar a morte dos cabritos.


#2 - Evaluation of ultrasonic transmission of Copaifera duckei Dwyer herbal gel, 7(5):516-520

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Marinho D.F., Oliveira E.C.P., Araújo J.A.S., Pinto I.F., Lima H.S., Moraes W.P., Ambrósio C.E. & Morini A.C. 2017. [Evaluation of ultrasonic transmission of Copaifera duckei Dwyer herbal gel.] Avaliação da transmissibilidade ultrassônica do gel fitoterápico de Copaifera duckei Dwyer. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(5):516-520. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biociências, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Rua Vera Paz s/n, Bairro Salé, Santarém, PA 68040-480, Brazil. E-mail: dalianemarinho@yahoo.com.br This study aimed to evaluate the potential of transmissibility of an herbal gel of Copaifera duckei Dwyer at a concentration of 10%. The research was registered with the Brazilian Biodiversity System. The gel of Copaifera duckei 10% was guidelined by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and tested on an Ultrasound device (US) operated in the range of 1 MHz. The control groups were selected distilled water and hydro alcoholic gel. The analysis was qualitatively and quantitatively using the model proposed in the literature. The US was scheduled to current modes pulsed/continuous and tested in the intensities (0.2/0.4/0.6/0.8/1.0W/cm2) in 1mim/cm2. The data received statistical treatment by BioEstat software 5.3 and was admitted to a significance level of ≥0.05. In continuous mode and intensity of 0.2W/cm2 gel was considered “good transmitter” at the intensity of 0.4W/cm2 and 0.6W/cm2 a “moderate Transmitter” and the intensity of 0.8W/cm2 and 1.0W/cm2 a “poor transmitter”. It was concluded that the 10% gel C. duckei US did not attenuate US waves in any form or intensity tested; it can thus be used for this treatment being considered a good or moderate transmitter according to the intensity of US.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Marinho D.F., Oliveira E.C.P., Araújo J.A.S., Pinto I.F., Lima H.S., Moraes W.P., Ambrósio C.E. & Morini A.C. 2017. [Evaluation of ultrasonic transmission of Copaifera duckei Dwyer herbal gel.] Avaliação da transmissibilidade ultrassônica do gel fitoterápico de Copaifera duckei Dwyer. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(5):516-520. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biociências, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Rua Vera Paz s/n, Bairro Salé, Santarém, PA 68040-480, Brazil. E-mail: dalianemarinho@yahoo.com.br Esse estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de transmissibilidade ultrassônica de um gel fitoterápico de copaíba da espécie Copaifera duckei Dwyer na concentração de 10%. A pesquisa foi registrada junto ao Sistema Brasileiro de Biodiversidade. O gel fitoterápico de Copaifera duckei 10% foi manipulado de acordo diretrizes da Farmacopéia Brasileira e testado em um aparelho de Ultrassom (US) operado na faixa de 1 MHz. Como grupos controle foram selecionados a água destilada e o gel hidroalcoólico. A análise ocorreu de forma qualitativa e quantitativa através do modelo proposto na literatura. O US foi programado para modos de corrente pulsado/contínuo e testados nas intensidades (0,2/0,4/0,6/0,8/1,0W/cm2), em 1mim/cm2. Os dados receberam tratamento estatístico pelo software BioEstat 5.3 e foi admitido um nível de significância de ≥0,05. No modo contínuo e na intensidade de 0.2W/cm2 o gel foi considerado “Bom transmissor”, na intensidade de 0.4 W/cm2 e 0.6W/cm2 um “Transmissor moderado” e nas intensidades de 0.8W/cm2 e 1.0W/cm2 um “Transmissor pobre”. Concluiu-se que o gel de C. duckei 10% não atenuou as ondas de US em nenhum modo ou intensidade testado. E pode assim ser adicionado a esse para tratamentos sendo considerado transmissor bom ou moderado de acordo com a intensidade do US.


#3 - Experimental poisoning by Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) in goats, 31(6):477-481

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Carvalho F.K.L., Medeiros R.M.T., Araújo J.A.S. & Riet-Correa F. 2011. [Experimental poisoning by Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) in goats.] Intoxicação experimental por Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(6):477-481. Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Passiflora foetida is mentioned as a toxic plant by farmers in northeastern Brazil. This research aimed to establish the toxicity of P. foetida for goats, in different seasons of the year, and to determine its toxic compound. Initially, the plant collected two days before administration was non toxic at the daily dose of 40g per kg of body weight (g/kg) given during two days. Furthermore, the plant was administered immediately after collection at a dose of 4-8g/kg to four goats. The animal that ingested 8g/kg showed severe clinical signs, but recovered after treatment with sodium thiosulfate. The other three goats showed mild signs of poisoning and recovered spontaneously. The plant was then administered during different seasons to 23 goats at the dose of 10g/kg. The plant was significantly (P<0.05) more toxic during the dry season than during the rainy season; 11 out of 14 goats that received the plant in the dry season showed clinical signs, but only 3 out of 13 goats that ingested the plant during the rainy season had signs. All goats with clinical signs recovered after the administration of sodium thiosulfate. Clinical signs were apathy, tachycardia and tachypnea, jugular venous pulse, incoordination, bellowing, mydriasis, and sternal recumbence followed by lateral recumbence. Before each administration the plant was tested for cyanide by the picric acid paper test to estimate the cyanide concentration in the plant, which was defined as slight, moderate, high, and very high. Samples with slight reaction were not toxic, those with moderate reaction induced mild signs of poisoning, and those with high reaction induced severe clinical signs. Samples with very high concentrations of cyanide were not observed. The results demonstrated that P. foetida is a cyanogenic plant, which causes poisoning after the ingestion of fresh leaves, mainly during the dry period.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Carvalho F.K.L., Medeiros R.M.T., Araújo J.A.S. & Riet-Correa F. 2011. [Experimental poisoning by Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) in goats.] Intoxicação experimental por Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(6):477-481. Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Passiflora foetida é mencionada por produtores da região Nordeste como causa de intoxicação espontânea em animais. Este trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar a toxicidade de P. foetida em caprinos e determinar seu princípio ativo e a época do ano em que a mesma é tóxica. Inicialmente a planta administrada em duas doses diárias de 40g por kg de peso animal (g/kg) coletada dois dias antes da administração não resultou tóxica. Posteriormente a planta administrada imediatamente após a coleta resultou tóxica nas doses que variaram de 4 a 8 g/kg, em quatro caprinos. O animal que recebeu 8g/kg apresentou sinais clínicos graves e recuperou-se após a administração de tiossulfato de sódio. Os demais caprinos apresentaram sinais menos graves e se recuperaram espontaneamente. Posteriormente, a planta foi administrada em diferentes épocas a 23 caprinos na dose de 10g/kg. A planta foi significativamente mais tóxica (P<0,05) na época seca; no total, dos 14 caprinos que receberam a planta na época seca, 11 apresentaram sinais clínicos de intoxicação e dos 13 caprinos que receberam a planta na época das chuvas, apenas 3 apresentaram sinais clínicos. Todos os animais que apresentaram sinais clínicos, se recuperaram após a administração de tiosulfato de sódio. Os sinais clínicos caracterizavam-se por apatia, pulso venoso positivo, ataxia, berros, taquicardia e taquipneia, midríase e decúbito esternal seguido por decúbito lateral. Antes de cada administração era feito o teste do papel picrosódico para estimar o teor de cianeto na planta, classificando a reação em discreta, leve, moderada e acentuada. As amostras com reação discreta não apresentaram toxicidade, as com reação leve induziram sinais leves e as com reação moderada causaram sinais graves ou moderados de intoxicação. Não foram observados testes com reação acentuada. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que P. foetida é uma planta cianogênica que causa intoxicação após a ingestão das folhas frescas, principalmente no período de estiagem.


#4 - Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil, 29(11):919-924

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Assis T.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Araújo J.A.S., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2009. [Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil.] Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos no Sertão Paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(11):919-924. Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: rmtmed@uol.com.br A survey of plant poisoning in ruminants and equidae was conducted in 20 municipalities of the semiarid region of the Sertão Paraibano. Fifty farmers and 11 veterinary practitioners were interviewed. Ipomoea asarifolia and Mascagnia rigida are the most important poisonous plants in the region. Indigofera suffruticosa, the cianogenic plants (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa, and Manihot spp.), Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Crotalaria retusa cause also important intoxications in the area. Sporadic outbreaks of poisonings by Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflora and Brachiaria decumbens were also mentioned. Some farmers mentioned that Ziziphus joazeiro, Passiflora foetida, Caesalpina ferrea and Crescentia cujete cause abortion. The fruits of Crescentia cujete were administered to two pregnant goats causing perinatal mortality and abortion. The peels of the beans Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata, and the leaves of Licania rigida are associated with ruminal impactation in cattle. The fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) and Anacardium occidentale (cashew) are associated with ethanol poisoning in cattle. Dalechampia sp. and Croton sp. were also mentioned as possible toxic plants in the region.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Assis T.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Araújo J.A.S., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2009. [Plant poisonings in ruminants and equidae in the Sertão of Paraiba, Brazil.] Intoxicações por plantas em ruminantes e equídeos no Sertão Paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(11):919-924. Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: rmtmed@uol.com.br Foi realizado um levantamento das intoxicações por plantas em 20 municípios do Sertão Paraibano, onde foram entrevistados 50 produtores e 11 médicos veterinários. De acordo com o levantamento realizado, Ipomoea asarifolia e Mascagnia rigida são as intoxicações mais importantes. Indigofera suffruticosa, as plantas cianogênicas (Sorghum vulgare, Piptadenia macrocarpa e Manihot spp.), Mimosa tenuiflora, Aspidosperma pyrifolium e Crotalaria retusa são plantas importantes como causa de intoxicações na região. Os entrevistados relataram casos esporádicos de intoxicação por Ricinus communis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Prosopis juliflora e Brachiaria decumbens. Ziziphus joazeiro, Passiflora sp., Caesalpina ferrea e Crescentia cujete foram mencionadas como causa de abortos em ruminantes. Frutos de Crescentia cujete foram administrados a duas cabras prenhes causando mortalidade perinatal e abortos. As cascas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris e Vigna unguiculata) e as folhas de Licania rigida (oiticica) são associadas à sobrecarga ruminal em bovinos. As frutas de Mangifera indica (manga) e Anacardium occidentale (cajú) são responsabilizadas por causarem intoxicação etílica. Dalechampia sp. e Croton sp. foram citadas pelos entrevistados como possíveis plantas tóxicas, que ainda não tiveram sua toxicidade comprovada.


#5 - Intoxicação experimental por Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos e ovinos, p.488-494

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Araujo J.A.S., Riet-Correa F., Medeiros R.M.T., Soares M.P., Oliveira D.M. & Carvalho F.K.L. 2008. [Experimental poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) in goats and sheep.] Intoxicação experimental por Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos e ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(10):488-494. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Campus de Patos, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Ipomoea asarifolia causes a tremogenic syndrome in sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes. The objectives of the experiments were (1) to determine the toxicity to goats of fresh I. asarifolia collected during the raining and the dry season, and the toxicity of the dried plant, and (2) to determine the toxicity of the plant to sheep, and if the active principle is eliminated through the milk. In the first experiment the plant collected in the dry season and in the raining season was fed to 16 goats. The plant collected during the dry season caused clinical signs at the daily doses of 5g and 10g/kg body weight. The plant collected during the raining season was toxic at daily doses of 20g and 30g/kg, indicating that the plant is more toxic during the dry season. The plant collected in the dry season and dried was fed to 9 goats at doses of 1.7g, 2.0g, 3.4g, and 5.1g per kg. Daily doses of 3.0g, 4.0g and 5.1g/kg caused clinical signs, showing that the plant maintains its toxicity after being dried. In the second experiment the fresh plant collected in the dry and in the raining season was fed to 10 sheep. The plant collected in the dry season was toxic at the dose of 5g/kg, and the plant collected in the raining season was toxic at the doses of 10g and 20g/kg. The experimental results suggest that sheep are more susceptible to the poisoning than goats. As some farmers mentioned that suckling non-grazing lambs are poisoned by milk ingestion, I. asarifolia was fed at daily doses of 2.5g, 5.0g and 10g/kg for variable periods to 5 sheep from the day of parturition (2 sheep), after the last day of pregnancy (1 sheep) and 60 days before parturition (2 sheep). The sheep but not the lambs showed clinical signs of intoxication suggesting that the active principle is not eliminated through the milk at doses toxic for the lambs. In one euthanized sheep no gross or histologic lesions were detected. The main ultra-structural findings were found in Purkinje cell dendrites and included swelling, decrease or absence of dendritic spines, decrease or absence of neurotubules and neurofilaments and vacuolation of the dendroplasm. Swelling of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and granular eletrondense inclusions in dendroplasm was observed. Swelling of astrocyte foot processes was conspicuous. It is suggested that these alterations are a result of continuous tremors induced by the plant with liberation of glutamate causing excitotoxicity, which probably constitutes a neuronal mechanism of defense.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Araujo J.A.S., Riet-Correa F., Medeiros R.M.T., Soares M.P., Oliveira D.M. & Carvalho F.K.L. 2008. [Experimental poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) in goats and sheep.] Intoxicação experimental por Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos e ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(10):488-494. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Campus de Patos, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Ipomoea asarifolia causes a tremogenic syndrome in sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes. The objectives of the experiments were (1) to determine the toxicity to goats of fresh I. asarifolia collected during the raining and the dry season, and the toxicity of the dried plant, and (2) to determine the toxicity of the plant to sheep, and if the active principle is eliminated through the milk. In the first experiment the plant collected in the dry season and in the raining season was fed to 16 goats. The plant collected during the dry season caused clinical signs at the daily doses of 5g and 10g/kg body weight. The plant collected during the raining season was toxic at daily doses of 20g and 30g/kg, indicating that the plant is more toxic during the dry season. The plant collected in the dry season and dried was fed to 9 goats at doses of 1.7g, 2.0g, 3.4g, and 5.1g per kg. Daily doses of 3.0g, 4.0g and 5.1g/kg caused clinical signs, showing that the plant maintains its toxicity after being dried. In the second experiment the fresh plant collected in the dry and in the raining season was fed to 10 sheep. The plant collected in the dry season was toxic at the dose of 5g/kg, and the plant collected in the raining season was toxic at the doses of 10g and 20g/kg. The experimental results suggest that sheep are more susceptible to the poisoning than goats. As some farmers mentioned that suckling non-grazing lambs are poisoned by milk ingestion, I. asarifolia was fed at daily doses of 2.5g, 5.0g and 10g/kg for variable periods to 5 sheep from the day of parturition (2 sheep), after the last day of pregnancy (1 sheep) and 60 days before parturition (2 sheep). The sheep but not the lambs showed clinical signs of intoxication suggesting that the active principle is not eliminated through the milk at doses toxic for the lambs. In one euthanized sheep no gross or histologic lesions were detected. The main ultra-structural findings were found in Purkinje cell dendrites and included swelling, decrease or absence of dendritic spines, decrease or absence of neurotubules and neurofilaments and vacuolation of the dendroplasm. Swelling of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and granular eletrondense inclusions in dendroplasm was observed. Swelling of astrocyte foot processes was conspicuous. It is suggested that these alterations are a result of continuous tremors induced by the plant with liberation of glutamate causing excitotoxicity, which probably constitutes a neuronal mechanism of defense.


#6 - Ectima contagioso em ovinos e caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba, p.135-139

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Nóbrega Jr J.E., Macêdo J.T.S.A., Araújo J.A.S., Dantas A.F.M., Soares M.P. & Riet-Correa F. 2008. [Contagious echtyma in sheep and goats in the semiarid of Paraíba, Brazil.] Ectima contagioso em ovinos e caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(3):135-139. Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-970 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Ten outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in goats and two in sheep in the semiarid of Paraíba State are reported. Young animals were more frequently affected, but in 8 outbreaks adult animals were also affected, mainly lactating goats which developed udder lesions. None of the affected flocks had been vaccinated. Upon histologic examination the epidermis showed acanthosis with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and multifocal ballooning degeneration forming vesicles or pustules. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in keratinocytes. Crust of necrotic cells, hyperkeratosis, and intracorneal microabscesses or large ulcerated areas were also observed. Severe diffuse infiltration by mononuclear cells was observed in the dermis. A human case was observed in an investigator that was feeding a goat that later appeared with lesions of the disease. In this case, the virus was identified by electron microscopy of a skin biopsy. These results show that contagious ecthyma is endemic in Northeastern Brazil and therefore systematic vaccination of the flocks is necessary to control the disease. The use of gloves to handle affected animals is advisable to minimize the risk of human exposure.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Nóbrega Jr J.E., Macêdo J.T.S.A., Araújo J.A.S., Dantas A.F.M., Soares M.P. & Riet-Correa F. 2008. [Contagious echtyma in sheep and goats in the semiarid of Paraíba, Brazil.] Ectima contagioso em ovinos e caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(3):135-139. Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-970 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Ten outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in goats and two in sheep in the semiarid of Paraíba State are reported. Young animals were more frequently affected, but in 8 outbreaks adult animals were also affected, mainly lactating goats which developed udder lesions. None of the affected flocks had been vaccinated. Upon histologic examination the epidermis showed acanthosis with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and multifocal ballooning degeneration forming vesicles or pustules. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in keratinocytes. Crust of necrotic cells, hyperkeratosis, and intracorneal microabscesses or large ulcerated areas were also observed. Severe diffuse infiltration by mononuclear cells was observed in the dermis. A human case was observed in an investigator that was feeding a goat that later appeared with lesions of the disease. In this case, the virus was identified by electron microscopy of a skin biopsy. These results show that contagious ecthyma is endemic in Northeastern Brazil and therefore systematic vaccination of the flocks is necessary to control the disease. The use of gloves to handle affected animals is advisable to minimize the risk of human exposure.


#7 - Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos, p.36-42

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira D.M., Pimentel L.A., Araújo J.A.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2008. [Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in goats.] Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Ve-terinária Brasileira 28(1):36-42. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campi-na Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae), with the common name favela, is a generally spiny plant of the Brazilian semiarid. Mainly during the dry season livestock browse its leaves from the shrubs or ingest the dry leaves fallen to the ground. Farmers report the spontaneous poisoning by this plant when livestock has access to shrubs or branches that had been cut. Different parts of the ground fresh plant, diluted in water, are used by people in the semiarid to hunt birds. To determine the toxicity of C. phyllacanthus, leaves of the non-spiny plant were fed by hand to a goat by putting small amount into its mouth. After the consumption of 4.7g/kg body weight, the goat had tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, nystagmus, opisthotonos and sternal recumbence. The death occurred 30 minutes after the onset of clinical signs. Fresh leaves from the same plants were given to 8 goats at doses of 0.5-2.5g/kg without causing clinical signs. Three goats showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in cyanide poisoning. Two goats given 0.5mg/kg of a 20% solution of sodium thiosulphate recovered immediately after treatment. Another goat recovered spontaneously. Leaves from the same plants were sun-dried during variable periods for 8-30 days, and then given to 8 goats. The goat that ingested the plant dried at the sun during 8 days died after the ingestion of 3 g/kg. The goat that ingested the plant, exposed to the sun for 9 days, showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 1.13g/kg, but recovered spontaneously. The goats that ingested the leaves exposed to the sun during 10-29 days showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg, but recovered spontaneously or after treatment with sodium thiosulphate. No clinical signs were observed in the goat that ingested the plant that had been exposed to the sun during 30 days. In another experiment ground leaves of the plant were dried at the sun for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days and given to goats at the dose of 3g/kg. Goats that received the plant dried for 1, 2 or 3 days showed clinical signs, but recovered spontaneously. The goat that ingested the plant dried 4 days showed no clinical signs. Leaves of the spineless C. phyllacanthus used in the experiments, 20 samples of leaves from spiny plants, 3 samples of the ground plant stem, and 2 samples of fruits were positive with the picrosodic paper test for HCN. These results demonstrated that C. phyllacanthus is a cyanogenic plant. After being cut the entire leaves maintain their toxicity for up to 30 days, and the ground leaves for up to 3 days. After the end of the raining season dry leaves fallen to the ground and tested within a short period were negative for HCN. These results have to be taken into account for the use of C. phyllacanthus as forage.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira D.M., Pimentel L.A., Araújo J.A.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2008. [Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in goats.] Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Ve-terinária Brasileira 28(1):36-42. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campi-na Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae), with the common name favela, is a generally spiny plant of the Brazilian semiarid. Mainly during the dry season livestock browse its leaves from the shrubs or ingest the dry leaves fallen to the ground. Farmers report the spontaneous poisoning by this plant when livestock has access to shrubs or branches that had been cut. Different parts of the ground fresh plant, diluted in water, are used by people in the semiarid to hunt birds. To determine the toxicity of C. phyllacanthus, leaves of the non-spiny plant were fed by hand to a goat by putting small amount into its mouth. After the consumption of 4.7g/kg body weight, the goat had tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, nystagmus, opisthotonos and sternal recumbence. The death occurred 30 minutes after the onset of clinical signs. Fresh leaves from the same plants were given to 8 goats at doses of 0.5-2.5g/kg without causing clinical signs. Three goats showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in cyanide poisoning. Two goats given 0.5mg/kg of a 20% solution of sodium thiosulphate recovered immediately after treatment. Another goat recovered spontaneously. Leaves from the same plants were sun-dried during variable periods for 8-30 days, and then given to 8 goats. The goat that ingested the plant dried at the sun during 8 days died after the ingestion of 3 g/kg. The goat that ingested the plant, exposed to the sun for 9 days, showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 1.13g/kg, but recovered spontaneously. The goats that ingested the leaves exposed to the sun during 10-29 days showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg, but recovered spontaneously or after treatment with sodium thiosulphate. No clinical signs were observed in the goat that ingested the plant that had been exposed to the sun during 30 days. In another experiment ground leaves of the plant were dried at the sun for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days and given to goats at the dose of 3g/kg. Goats that received the plant dried for 1, 2 or 3 days showed clinical signs, but recovered spontaneously. The goat that ingested the plant dried 4 days showed no clinical signs. Leaves of the spineless C. phyllacanthus used in the experiments, 20 samples of leaves from spiny plants, 3 samples of the ground plant stem, and 2 samples of fruits were positive with the picrosodic paper test for HCN. These results demonstrated that C. phyllacanthus is a cyanogenic plant. After being cut the entire leaves maintain their toxicity for up to 30 days, and the ground leaves for up to 3 days. After the end of the raining season dry leaves fallen to the ground and tested within a short period were negative for HCN. These results have to be taken into account for the use of C. phyllacanthus as forage.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV