Resultado da pesquisa (35)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Döbereiner J

#1 - Presence of Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the oral microflora of cattle with periodontitis, 35(10):829-834

Abstract in English:

ABSTRATC.- Borsanelli A.C., Gaetti-Jardim Júnior E., Schweitzer C.M., Döbereiner J. & Dutra I.S. 2015. Presence of Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the oral microflora of cattle with periodontitis. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(9):829-834. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Unesp, Campus de Araçatuba, Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Jardim Dona Amélia, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br Bovine periodontitis is a progressive purulent infectious process associated with the presence of strictly and facultative anaerobic subgingival biofilm and epidemiologically related to soil management in large geographic areas of Brazil. This study aimed to detect species of the genera Porphyromonas and Prevotella, which occurr in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm (n=26) and in gingival sulcus of animals considered periodontally healthy (n=25). Presence of the microorganisms was evaluated by independent-culture medium diagnostic method, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers of Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. gulae, Prevotella buccae, P. intermedia, P. loescheii, P. melaninogenica, P. nigrescens, P. oralis and P. tannerae. The species P. endodontalis (80.7%), P. melaninogenica (73.1%) and P. intermedia (61.5%) were the most predominant in samples of cattle with periodontitis. Regarding non-injured gingival sulcus of cattle, P. endodontalis (40%) and P. loeschei (40%) prevailed. Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. gulae and Prevotella tannerae were not detected in the 51 samples studied. Data evaluation by T test, enabled to verify that ocorrence of Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (p=0.000003), P. endodontalis (p=0.0023), Prevotella buccae (p=0.0017), P. intermedia (p=0.0020), P. melaninogenica (p=0.00006) and P. oralis (p=0.0028) is correlated with bovine periodontitis.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Borsanelli A.C., Gaetti-Jardim Júnior E., Schweitzer C.M., Döbereiner J. & Dutra I.S. 2015. Presence of Porphyromonas and Prevotella species in the oral microflora of cattle with periodontitis. [Presença de espécies de Porphyromonas e Prevotella na microbiota oral de bovinos com periodontite.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(9):829-834. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Unesp, Campus de Araçatuba, Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Jardim Dona Amélia, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br A periodontite bovina é um processo infeccioso purulento e progressivo associado à presença de biofilme subgengival anaeróbio estrito e facultativo e de incidência em extensas áreas geográficas do Brasil. O trabalho teve por objetivo detectar espécies dos gêneros Porphyromonas e Prevotella presentes na bolsa periodontal de bovinos com lesões de profundidade maior que 5mm (n=26) e do sulco gengival de animais com idade de 6 a 24 meses e considerados periodontalmente sadios (n=25). A presença dos microrganismos foi avaliada pelo método independente de cultivo bacteriano, por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) com iniciadores específicos para Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, P. endodontalis, P. gingivalis, P. gulae, Prevotella buccae, P. intermedia, P. loescheii, P. melalinogenica, P. nigrescens, P. oralis e P. tannerae. P. endodontalis (80,7%), P. melalinogenica (73,1%) e P. intermedia (61,5%) foram os mais prevalentes nas amostras de bovinos com periodontite. Já no sulco gengival de bovinos sem lesões prevaleceram P. endodontalis (40%) e P. loeschei (40%). Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. gulae e Prevotella tannerae não foram detectados nas 51 amostras pesquisadas. A partir da avaliação dos dados pelo teste T, verificou-se que a ocorrência de Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (p=0.000003), P. endodontalis (p=0.0023), Prevotella buccae (p=0.0017), P. intermedia (p=0.0020), P. melalinogenica (p=0.00006) e P. oralis (p=0.0028) está associada à periodontite bovina.


#2 - Treponema denticola in the microflora of bovine periodontitis, 35(3):237-240

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Borsanelli A.C., Gaetti-Jardim Júnior E., Döbereiner J. & Dutra I.S. 2015. Treponema denticola in the microflora of bovine periodontitis. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(3):237-240. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Cx. Postal 533, Jardim Dona Amélia, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br Periodontitis in cattle is an infectious purulent progressive disease associated with strict anaerobic subgingival biofilm and is epidemiologically related to soil management at several locations of Brazil. This study aimed to detect Treponema species in periodontal pockets of cattle with lesions deeper than 5mm in the gingival sulcus of 6 to 24-month-old animals considered periodontally healthy. We used paper cones to collect the materials, after removal of supragingival plaques, and kept frozen (at -80°C) up to DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium and T. vincentii primers. In periodontal pocket, it was possible to identify by PCR directly, the presence of Treponema amylovorum in 73% of animals (19/26), T. denticola in 42.3% (11/26) and T. maltophilum in 54% (14/26). Among the 25 healthy sites, it was possible to identify T. amylovorum in 18 (72%), T. denticola in two (8%) and T. maltophilum in eight (32%). Treponema medium and T. vincentii were not detected over all 51 evaluated samples. The presence of Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum and, in particular, the widely recognized T. denticola in subgingival microflora brings an original and potencially important contribution in studies of the bovine periodontitis.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Borsanelli A.C., Gaetti-Jardim Júnior E., Döbereiner J. & Dutra I.S. 2015. Treponema denticola in the microflora of bovine periodontitis. [Treponema denticola na microbiota da periodontite bovina.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(3):237-240. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Cx. Postal 533, Jardim Dona Amélia, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br A periodontite bovina é um processo infeccioso purulento e progressivo associado à presença de biofilme subgengival anaeróbio estrito e epidemiologicamente relacionada ao manejo do solo em amplas áreas geográficas do Brasil. O trabalho teve por objetivo detectar espécies de Treponema presentes na bolsa periodontal de bovinos com lesões de profundidade maior que 5mm e do sulco gengival de animais com idade de 6 a 24 meses e considerados periodontalmente sadios. Os materiais foram colhidos por meio de cones de papel, após a remoção do biofilme supragengival, e mantidos sob congelamento (-80°C) até a extração do DNA e realização da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) com o emprego de iniciadores de T. amylovorum, T. denticola, T. maltophilum, T. medium e T. vincentii. Na bolsa periodontal de 73% (19/26) dos animais foi possível detectar diretamente, pela PCR, a presença de Treponema amylovorum, de 42,3% (11/26) T. denticola e de 54% (14/26) T. maltophilum. Dos 25 sítios sadios, em 18 (72%) foi possível identificar T. amylovorum, em dois (8%) T. denticola e em oito (32%) T. maltophilum. Treponema medium e T. vincentii não foram detectados nas 51 amostras avaliadas. A presença de Treponema amylovorum, T. maltophilum na microbiota subgengival, e em especial do amplamente reconhecido periodontopatógeno T. denticola, traz uma contribuição original de importância potencial nos estudos da periodontite bovina.


#3 - Clinical and pathological pictures of snakebite poisoning by Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops spp. in livestock, 34(4):301-312

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Tokarnia C.H., Brito M.F., Barbosa J.D. & Döbereiner J. 2014. [Clinical and pathological pictures of snakebite poisoning by Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops spp. in livestock.]Quadros clínico-patológicos do envenenamento ofídico por Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em animais de produção. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(4):301-312. Departamento de Nutrição Animal e Pastagem, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: tokarnia@ufrrj.br A review was performed about the clinical and pathological pictures caused by the venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops spp. in cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep and swine. The data were compiled from experiments in livestock species found in the literature, from experimentation accomplished by our research group, and from communicated natural cases of snakebite poisoning. The most important data were placed on two Tables, the analysis of which revealed some interesting aspects: (1) in our experiments the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus caused in horses severe edema at the site of subcutaneous injection, to the contrary as observed in all other experimental animal species, an aspect not recorded in the literature; (2) in our experiments the venom of Bothrops species in cattle, sheep and horses, injected subcutaneously, did not cause edema as generally reported in the literature, but caused severe subcutaneous hemorrhages at the injection site. In the non fatal cases the blood was reabsorbed in a few days without leaving sequelae; exception was the reaction to the venom of Bothrops jararacussu, which caused edema in the experimental sheep, and severe tumefaction resulting in fistulous elimination of serous liquid in the experimental horses. The aim of this study was to contribute for the diagnostic of snakebite accidents in livestock.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Tokarnia C.H., Brito M.F., Barbosa J.D. & Döbereiner J. 2014. [Clinical and pathological pictures of snakebite poisoning by Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops spp. in livestock.]Quadros clínico-patológicos do envenenamento ofídico por Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em animais de produção. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(4):301-312. Departamento de Nutrição Animal e Pastagem, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: tokarnia@ufrrj.br Foi realizada uma revisão dos quadros clínico-patológicos causados pelos venenos de Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em bovinos, búfalos, ovinos equinos e suínos. Foram compilados os dados obtidos pela experimentação em animais de produção encontrados na literatura e os obtidos através de experimentação realizada por nossa equipe. Também foram revisados os casos naturais de envenenamento ofídico comunicados. Em dois Quadros foram lançados os mais importantes dados dessas revisões, que revelou diversos aspectos interessantes: 1) em nossos experimentos, o veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus, quando injetado por via subcutânea em cavalos, causou um edema acentuado no local da aplicação, ao contrário do que tem sido observado em todas as outras espécies animais, aspecto não relatado na literatura; 2) em nossos experimentos, o veneno de diversas espécies de Bothrops, quando injetado por via subcutânea em bovinos, ovinos e equinos, não causou edema como em geral é relatado na literatura, e sim hemorragias subcutâneas acentuadas no local da aplicação. Nos casos não fatais este sangue era reabsorvido em poucos dias sem deixar sequelas. Exceção foi a reação ao veneno de Bothrops jararacussu, que causou edema nos ovinos experimentais, e tumefação acentuada que resultou em fístula com eliminação de líquido seroso nos equinos experimentais. O objetivo do presente estudo visa contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico de acidentes ofídicos em animais de produção.


#4 - Erroneous interpretations regarding mineral deficiencies and supplementation of cattle in Brazil, 34(3):244-249

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Malafaia P., Costa R.M., Brito M.F., Peixoto P.V., Barbosa J.D., Tokarnia C.H. & Döbereiner J. 2014. [Erroneous interpretations regarding mineral deficiencies and supplementation of cattle in Brazil.] Equívocos arraigados no meio pecuário sobre deficiências e suplementação minerais em bovinos no Brasil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(3):244-249. Departamento de Nutrição Animal e Pastagem, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: malafaia_ufrrj@yahoo.com.br The economic importance of mineral deficiencies in cattle and their supplementation for animal health and production is well established. But in spite of the existing knowledge and conscience of professionals on this subject in Brazil, there are numerous erroneous interpretations and superstitions on mineral supplementation for cattle, together with indiscriminate commercialization of mineral mixtures; the latter, thoroughly accepted and applied in the rural area, causes considerable economic losses to the cattle industry. In this article of general interest we discuss, one by one, the most important misunderstandings and superstitions regarding this subject.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Malafaia P., Costa R.M., Brito M.F., Peixoto P.V., Barbosa J.D., Tokarnia C.H. & Döbereiner J. 2014. [Erroneous interpretations regarding mineral deficiencies and supplementation of cattle in Brazil.] Equívocos arraigados no meio pecuário sobre deficiências e suplementação minerais em bovinos no Brasil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(3):244-249. Departamento de Nutrição Animal e Pastagem, Instituto de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: malafaia_ufrrj@yahoo.com.br Está bem estabelecida a importância que as deficiências e a suplementação minerais exercem na sanidade, produtividade e economicidade da atividade pecuária brasileira. Apesar de os conhecimentos sobre este assunto no meio acadêmico no Brasil serem sólidos, há numerosos equívocos e crendices sobre a suplementação mineral, aliados à comercialização indiscriminada de suplementos minerais, amplamente aceitos e aplicados no meio rural, o que causa consideráveis prejuízos ao setor pecuário. Neste artigo de interesse geral são discutidos, um por um, as mais importantes interpretações errôneas a respeito desse tema.


#5 - Antagonism of acetamid in experiments with sheep, goats and rabbits indicates that monofluoroacetate is the toxic principle of Pseudocalymma elegans Bignoniaceae, 31(10):867-874

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Helayel M.A., Caldas S.A., Peixoto T.C., França, T.N., Tokarnia C.H., Döbereiner J., Nogueira V.A. & Peixoto P.V. 2011. [Antagonism of acetamid in experiments with sheep, goats and rabbits indicates that monofluoroacetate is the toxic principle of Pseudocalymma elegans Bignoniaceae.] O antagonismo com acetamida em experimentos com ovinos, caprinos e coelhos indica monofluoroacetato como princípio tóxico de Pseudocalymma elegans Bignoniaceae. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(10):867-874. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: michel_abdallavet@yahoo.com.br This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of acetamid in experimental poisoning by Pseudocalymma elegans in sheep, goats and rabbits, in order to prove indirectly that monofluoroacetate (MF) is responsible for the clinical signs and death of animals that ingested the plant. Experiments were performed to determine for sheep and goats the lethal dose of P. elegans collected in Rio Bonito, RJ, in different seasons, and to adjust the dose of acetamid to be administered. - In the first experiment, two sheep and two goats received 1.0g/kg of fresh P. elegans, and two (one sheep and one goat) were pretreated with 2.0g/kg of acetamid. None of the animals showed clinical signs or died. Possibly, the plant could be less toxic, since it was collected at the end of the rainy season. - In the second experiment, two sheep and two goats received 0.67 and 1.0g/kg of the dried plant, after pretreatment with 2.0 and 3.0g/kg of acetamid, respectively. All animals died, as the administered doses of P. elegans were very high. - In the third experiment, two sheep and two goats received 0.333g/kg of dried P. elegans after previous administration of 2.0g/kg of acetamid; a week later, the protocol above was repeated, but without the antidote. In experiments with rabbits, doses of 0.5 and 1.0g/kg of dried P. elegans were given after administration of 3.0g/kg of acetamid; seven days later, the same protocol was repeated, except the administration of acetamide. This procedure, when acetamid was administered before, prevented the appearance of clinical signs and death of sheep, goats and rabbits. But the animals not treated with acetamid showed symptoms of poisoning and died. Clinically, the sheep and goats had tachycardia, engorged jugular vein, positive venous pulse, lateral recumbence, and muscle tremors. In the “dramatic phase”, the animals fell into lateral position, stretched the limbs, were paddling and died within minutes. The rabbits showed apathy, muscle tremors, vocalization and lateral decumbence minutes before death. At postmortem examination, the sheep and goats had engorged jugular veins and atria, dilated vena cava cranialis and caudalis, as well as pulmonary edema, hepatic congestion and edema of the gallbladder subserosa. In rabbits, the main macroscopic alterations were dilated atria, engorged vena cava cranialis and caudalis, and congested liver and diaphragm vessels. Histopathology revealed, in two sheep and one goat, vacuolar-hydropic degeneration of the distal convoluted kidney tubules, together with caryopicnosis. In the rabbits, the liver showed severe congestion with numerous shock corpuscles. The experimental results show indirectly that MF is to be held responsible for death of the animals that ingested P. elegans; since “acetate donor” compounds, such as acetamid, are capable to reduce the competitive inhibition of MF for the same active site (Coenzyme A) which prevents the formation of fluorocitrate, its active metabolite, formed in the body through the so-called “lethal synthesis”.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Helayel M.A., Caldas S.A., Peixoto T.C., França, T.N., Tokarnia C.H., Döbereiner J., Nogueira V.A. & Peixoto P.V. 2011. [Antagonism of acetamid in experiments with sheep, goats and rabbits indicates that monofluoroacetate is the toxic principle of Pseudocalymma elegans Bignoniaceae.] O antagonismo com acetamida em experimentos com ovinos, caprinos e coelhos indica monofluoroacetato como princípio tóxico de Pseudocalymma elegans Bignoniaceae. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(10):867-874. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: michel_abdallavet@yahoo.com.br


#6 - Surtos de Enteropatia Proliferativa Hemorrágica (Lawsonia intracelullaris) em suínos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, p.174-182

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- França T.N., Ribeiro C.T., Bezerra P.S., Döbereiner J., Cerqueira V.D. & Peixoto P.V. 2008. [Outbreaks of Proliferative Haemorrhagic Enteropathy (Lawsonia intracelullaris) in swine in Rio de Janeiro state.] Surtos de Enteropatia Proliferativa Hemorrágica (Lawsonia intracelullaris) em suínos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(3):174-182. Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22783-320, Brazil. E-mail: ticianafranca@terra.com.br Outbreaks of infection of swine with Lawsonia intracelullaris in the state of Rio de Janeiro are described. The symptomathology was characterized by bloody diarrhea with peracute course. Postmortem findings were pale organs and tissues, reticulate aspect of the ileum with its mucosa moderately thickened nad contained large amounts of partially coagulated blood. Histopathological examination revealed hyperplastic epithelial cell proliferation of the Lieberkühn crypts, sometimes associated with inflammatory and necrotic alterations. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of large amounts of bacteria in the cytoplasm of the cryptal epithelial cells. L. intracellularis was also seen by ultramicroscopic examination. These outbreaks occurred in 1987 and this is the first report of the disease in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- França T.N., Ribeiro C.T., Bezerra P.S., Döbereiner J., Cerqueira V.D. & Peixoto P.V. 2008. [Outbreaks of Proliferative Haemorrhagic Enteropathy (Lawsonia intracelullaris) in swine in Rio de Janeiro state.] Surtos de Enteropatia Proliferativa Hemorrágica (Lawsonia intracelullaris) em suínos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(3):174-182. Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22783-320, Brazil. E-mail: ticianafranca@terra.com.br Outbreaks of infection of swine with Lawsonia intracelullaris in the state of Rio de Janeiro are described. The symptomathology was characterized by bloody diarrhea with peracute course. Postmortem findings were pale organs and tissues, reticulate aspect of the ileum with its mucosa moderately thickened nad contained large amounts of partially coagulated blood. Histopathological examination revealed hyperplastic epithelial cell proliferation of the Lieberkühn crypts, sometimes associated with inflammatory and necrotic alterations. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of large amounts of bacteria in the cytoplasm of the cryptal epithelial cells. L. intracellularis was also seen by ultramicroscopic examination. These outbreaks occurred in 1987 and this is the first report of the disease in the state of Rio de Janeiro.


#7 - Pré-compostagem de cadáveres de bovinos acometidos pelo botulismo, p.157-161

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Curci V.C.M., Dutra I.S., Döbereiner J. & Lucas Junior J. 2007. [The effect of composting cattle carcasses on botulinum spores and toxin content.] Pré-compostagem de cadáveres de bovinos acometidos pelo botulismo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(4):157-161. Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Agronegócio, APTA Regional Extremo Oeste, Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Av. Alcides Fagundes Chagas 122, Araçatuba, SP 15055-240, Brazil. E-mail: vlmcursi@aptaregional.sp.gov.br Five carcasses of cattle that died from botulism were composted in individual isolated beds with the purpose of monitoring the effect on spores of Clostridium botulinum and of botulinum toxin. The diagnosis of botulinum poisoning was based on clinical and pathological, epidemic and/or laboratorial characteristics. Of the five bovines with clinical signs of chronic botulism, three were affected by the type D toxin, one by the CD complex, and one was negative for toxin and spores of C. botulinum in the viscera using a mouse bioassay. The composting process was carried out in beds with carcasses cut up and mixed with sawdust as a carbon source. They were kept anaerobic under a plastic sheet for 50 days. The temperature of the beds was monitored during the period and oscillated from 40.5 to 52.4°C. After this time, soft tissue had complete decomposed with a significant loss of weight (26.5-44.5%). The remaining bones no longer contained spores or botulinum toxin in the 5 samples taken from each carcass. Only 2 of the 200 samples of homogenized remaining (40 for each carcass) contained spores of C. botulinum type C. All samples were negative for botulinum toxin using the mouse bioassay. Composting carcasses of cattle that died from botulism eliminated botulinum spores and toxin from the remains.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Curci V.C.M., Dutra I.S., Döbereiner J. & Lucas Junior J. 2007. [The effect of composting cattle carcasses on botulinum spores and toxin content.] Pré-compostagem de cadáveres de bovinos acometidos pelo botulismo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(4):157-161. Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico do Agronegócio, APTA Regional Extremo Oeste, Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Av. Alcides Fagundes Chagas 122, Araçatuba, SP 15055-240, Brazil. E-mail: vlmcursi@aptaregional.sp.gov.br Five carcasses of cattle that died from botulism were composted in individual isolated beds with the purpose of monitoring the effect on spores of Clostridium botulinum and of botulinum toxin. The diagnosis of botulinum poisoning was based on clinical and pathological, epidemic and/or laboratorial characteristics. Of the five bovines with clinical signs of chronic botulism, three were affected by the type D toxin, one by the CD complex, and one was negative for toxin and spores of C. botulinum in the viscera using a mouse bioassay. The composting process was carried out in beds with carcasses cut up and mixed with sawdust as a carbon source. They were kept anaerobic under a plastic sheet for 50 days. The temperature of the beds was monitored during the period and oscillated from 40.5 to 52.4°C. After this time, soft tissue had complete decomposed with a significant loss of weight (26.5-44.5%). The remaining bones no longer contained spores or botulinum toxin in the 5 samples taken from each carcass. Only 2 of the 200 samples of homogenized remaining (40 for each carcass) contained spores of C. botulinum type C. All samples were negative for botulinum toxin using the mouse bioassay. Composting carcasses of cattle that died from botulism eliminated botulinum spores and toxin from the remains.


#8 - Esporos e toxinas de Clostridium botulinum em cacimbas utilizadas como bebedouro de bovinos no Vale do Araguaia, Goiás

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Souza A.M., Marques D.F., Döbereiner J. & Dutra I.S. 2006. [Spores and toxins of Clostridium botulinum in raining ponds used as water supply for cattle in pastures in the Araguaia Valley, state of Goiás, Brazil.] Esporos e toxinas de Clostridium botulinum em cacimbas utilizadas como bebedouro de bovinos no Vale do Araguaia, Goiás. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 26(3):133-138. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74001-970, Brazil. E-mail: airesms@vet.ufg.br The occurrence and distribution of Clostridium botulinum spores and toxins type C and D in 300 ponds, used by cattle for drinking on 130 farms located in 12 municipalities of the Rio Araguaia valley, state of Goiás, Brazil, was evaluated. The presence of spores was determined indirectly by cultivation in culture medium, followed by inoculation and neutralization in mice of samples of the sediment from the bottom of the raining ponds, from superficial soil and from cattle feces collected to its circuit. The toxin presence was evaluated directly by inoculation in mice of the filtered sediment of the ponds, followed by the neutralization in mice with antitoxins C and D. The presence of C. botulinum spores was significantly more frequent (p<0,05) in the cattle feces (31%), when compared with the results of the superficial soil samples (19%) and the sediments (10%). Botulinum toxins of type C and D or classified as belonging to the CD compound were detected in 6 samples (2%) of the 300 ponds. Of the 130 worked farms, in 122 (93,85%) ponds Clostridium botulinum spores or toxins were found in at least one of the researched variables, whilst ponds on only 8 (6,15%) farms did not present any contamination. Age and depth of the ponds were associated with the frequency of detection of botulinum spores and toxins. The older and shallower the ponds were, the larger was the frequency of isolation of the spores and toxins. The contamination of the ponds in the Araguaia valley with Clostridium botulinum spores and toxins type C and D demonstrates the permanent and growing potential risk for the occurrence of botulism in cattle through drinking water.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Souza A.M., Marques D.F., Döbereiner J. & Dutra I.S. 2006. [Spores and toxins of Clostridium botulinum in raining ponds used as water supply for cattle in pastures in the Araguaia Valley, state of Goiás, Brazil.] Esporos e toxinas de Clostridium botulinum em cacimbas utilizadas como bebedouro de bovinos no Vale do Araguaia, Goiás. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 26(3):133-138. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74001-970, Brazil. E-mail: airesms@vet.ufg.br The occurrence and distribution of Clostridium botulinum spores and toxins type C and D in 300 ponds, used by cattle for drinking on 130 farms located in 12 municipalities of the Rio Araguaia valley, state of Goiás, Brazil, was evaluated. The presence of spores was determined indirectly by cultivation in culture medium, followed by inoculation and neutralization in mice of samples of the sediment from the bottom of the raining ponds, from superficial soil and from cattle feces collected to its circuit. The toxin presence was evaluated directly by inoculation in mice of the filtered sediment of the ponds, followed by the neutralization in mice with antitoxins C and D. The presence of C. botulinum spores was significantly more frequent (p<0,05) in the cattle feces (31%), when compared with the results of the superficial soil samples (19%) and the sediments (10%). Botulinum toxins of type C and D or classified as belonging to the CD compound were detected in 6 samples (2%) of the 300 ponds. Of the 130 worked farms, in 122 (93,85%) ponds Clostridium botulinum spores or toxins were found in at least one of the researched variables, whilst ponds on only 8 (6,15%) farms did not present any contamination. Age and depth of the ponds were associated with the frequency of detection of botulinum spores and toxins. The older and shallower the ponds were, the larger was the frequency of isolation of the spores and toxins. The contamination of the ponds in the Araguaia valley with Clostridium botulinum spores and toxins type C and D demonstrates the permanent and growing potential risk for the occurrence of botulism in cattle through drinking water.


#9 - Botulismo em bovinos alimentados com cama de frango, p.115-119

Abstract in English:

Dutra I.S., Döbereiner J. & Souza A.M. 2005. [Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter.] Botulismo em bovinos alimentados com cama de frango. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(2):115-119. Depto Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Araçatuba, SP 16065-080, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br Outbreaks of botulism caused by type C and D of the botulinum toxin are frequent in Brazil, and are associated with bone chewing and ingestion of contaminated food and water. This paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratorial aspects of 7 outbreaks of botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter, which occurred in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, 1989-2000. Five outbreaks occurred in beef cattle herds, raised in confinement or under pasture conditions and supplemented with poultry litter, and 2 outbreaks occurred in dairy farms. From o total of 1,535 cattle supplemented regularily with poultry litter 455 animals (29.64%) died within 2 to 4 weeks. Morbidity and mortality varied from 3.47 to 100% in the 7 outbreaks. In one of the farms the lethality was 60.52%, and in others more than 88.43%, reaching 100% in three farms. Clinical signs were progressive paralysis, difficulties in moving, decubitus, normal alertness, decreased muscular tonus of tongue and tail, sialorrhoe and dyspnoe. At post-mortem examination of 30 cattle no noteable changes were observed. Spores of Clostridium botulinum were found in poultry litter samples collected on 7 farms. In liver, ruminal and intestinal fluid samples from 30 necropsied cattle botulinum toxin of type C (5) and D (9) or of the CD complex (1) were found in at least one of the samples collected from 15 animals, which confirms the clincial, pathological and epidemiological diagnosis of botulism.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Dutra I.S., Döbereiner J. & Souza A.M. 2005. [Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter.] Botulismo em bovinos alimentados com cama de frango. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(2):115-119. Depto Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Araçatuba, SP 16065-080, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br Outbreaks of botulism caused by type C and D of the botulinum toxin are frequent in Brazil, and are associated with bone chewing and ingestion of contaminated food and water. This paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratorial aspects of 7 outbreaks of botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter, which occurred in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, 1989-2000. Five outbreaks occurred in beef cattle herds, raised in confinement or under pasture conditions and supplemented with poultry litter, and 2 outbreaks occurred in dairy farms. From o total of 1,535 cattle supplemented regularily with poultry litter 455 animals (29.64%) died within 2 to 4 weeks. Morbidity and mortality varied from 3.47 to 100% in the 7 outbreaks. In one of the farms the lethality was 60.52%, and in others more than 88.43%, reaching 100% in three farms. Clinical signs were progressive paralysis, difficulties in moving, decubitus, normal alertness, decreased muscular tonus of tongue and tail, sialorrhoe and dyspnoe. At post-mortem examination of 30 cattle no noteable changes were observed. Spores of Clostridium botulinum were found in poultry litter samples collected on 7 farms. In liver, ruminal and intestinal fluid samples from 30 necropsied cattle botulinum toxin of type C (5) and D (9) or of the CD complex (1) were found in at least one of the samples collected from 15 animals, which confirms the clincial, pathological and epidemiological diagnosis of botulism.


#10 - O surto de peste suína africana ocorrido em 1978 no município de Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro

Abstract in English:

Tokarnia C.H., Peixoto P.V., Döbereiner J., Barros S.S. & Riet-Correa F. 2004. [The outbreak of African swine fever which ocurred in 1978 in the county of Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] O surto de peste suína africana ocorrido em 1978 no município de Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(4):223-238. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: tokarnia@ufrrj.br Due to doubts which still persist 25 years after the outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) which ocurred in the county of Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1978, the results obtained through the studies to establish and confirm the diagnosis are presented. These include data on the epidemiology, clinic-pathological aspects, bacteriological, virological and ultramicroscopic examinations, the experimental reproduction of the disease and cross immunity tests with classical swine fever virus performed in Brazil, and on the confirmation with isolation of the virus and determination of its identity at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center, New York, USA. The pigs of the affected herd had been fed untreated remains of meals from airplanes of international lines flying to Brazil from Portugal and Spain where ASF was occurring at the time. According to publication by the Ministry of Agriculture, after the diagnosis of the outbreak of ASF described in this paper, 223 additional outbreaks were reported in Brazil between 1978 and 1979, in all the Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South). Further outbreaks were reported in 1981, but their number is not known. The last case was reported to have occurred on November 15, 1981, and on December 5, 1984, Brazil was declared free of ASF. For the diagnosis of ASF 54,002 samples were examined by the Department of Virology of the Institute of Microbiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, from 1978 to 1981, by the techniques of haemadsorption in leucocyte cultures (HAd), direct immunoflorescence in tissue sections (FATS), direct immunoflorescence in cell cultures (FATCC), immuno-electro-osmophoresis (IEOP) and indirect immunoflorescence assay (IIF). Only 4 samples were positive with the FATCC procedure. This is the only technique which includes virus isolation; the origin of these positive samples was not reported, but probably they were from the Paracambi outbreak. From other suspected outbreaks of ASF in Brazil there is no information on the isolation and characterization of the virus isolates. Likewise there is no information available about the epidemiology, clinical signs, and pathology of suspected ASF in other outbreaks. The analysis of all published data on this matter in Brazil, the possibility of false-positive results, the lack of information about isolation and characterization of the virus, as well as the lack of epidemiological, clinical and pathological data of these other supposed outbreaks of ASF strongly suggest that the outbreak of Paracambi was the only occurrence of ASF in Brazil, confirmed by the isolation, identification of the virus, and the determination of its pathogenicity, and that ASF occurred and maintained itself confined to this area probably due to the early diagnosis and the rapid application of efficient control measures by the Brazilian authorities; the slaughter of the animals in the outbreak of Paracambi started as soon as 10 days after the first death, 3 days after the presumptive diagnosis.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Tokarnia C.H., Peixoto P.V., Döbereiner J., Barros S.S. & Riet-Correa F. 2004. [The outbreak of African swine fever which ocurred in 1978 in the county of Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] O surto de peste suína africana ocorrido em 1978 no município de Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(4):223-238. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: tokarnia@ufrrj.br Due to doubts which still persist 25 years after the outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) which ocurred in the county of Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1978, the results obtained through the studies to establish and confirm the diagnosis are presented. These include data on the epidemiology, clinic-pathological aspects, bacteriological, virological and ultramicroscopic examinations, the experimental reproduction of the disease and cross immunity tests with classical swine fever virus performed in Brazil, and on the confirmation with isolation of the virus and determination of its identity at the Plum Island Animal Disease Center, New York, USA. The pigs of the affected herd had been fed untreated remains of meals from airplanes of international lines flying to Brazil from Portugal and Spain where ASF was occurring at the time. According to publication by the Ministry of Agriculture, after the diagnosis of the outbreak of ASF described in this paper, 223 additional outbreaks were reported in Brazil between 1978 and 1979, in all the Brazilian regions (North, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South). Further outbreaks were reported in 1981, but their number is not known. The last case was reported to have occurred on November 15, 1981, and on December 5, 1984, Brazil was declared free of ASF. For the diagnosis of ASF 54,002 samples were examined by the Department of Virology of the Institute of Microbiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, from 1978 to 1981, by the techniques of haemadsorption in leucocyte cultures (HAd), direct immunoflorescence in tissue sections (FATS), direct immunoflorescence in cell cultures (FATCC), immuno-electro-osmophoresis (IEOP) and indirect immunoflorescence assay (IIF). Only 4 samples were positive with the FATCC procedure. This is the only technique which includes virus isolation; the origin of these positive samples was not reported, but probably they were from the Paracambi outbreak. From other suspected outbreaks of ASF in Brazil there is no information on the isolation and characterization of the virus isolates. Likewise there is no information available about the epidemiology, clinical signs, and pathology of suspected ASF in other outbreaks. The analysis of all published data on this matter in Brazil, the possibility of false-positive results, the lack of information about isolation and characterization of the virus, as well as the lack of epidemiological, clinical and pathological data of these other supposed outbreaks of ASF strongly suggest that the outbreak of Paracambi was the only occurrence of ASF in Brazil, confirmed by the isolation, identification of the virus, and the determination of its pathogenicity, and that ASF occurred and maintained itself confined to this area probably due to the early diagnosis and the rapid application of efficient control measures by the Brazilian authorities; the slaughter of the animals in the outbreak of Paracambi started as soon as 10 days after the first death, 3 days after the presumptive diagnosis.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV