Resultado da pesquisa (10)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Eimeria

#1 - DNA extraction methods for molecular detection of Eimeria spp. in cattle and sheep

Abstract in English:

Molecular detection of Eimeria species in fecal samples can be useful for experimental and diagnostic purposes. However, the parasite quantity presence in feces and the oocyst wall are an obstacle in DNA extraction protocols. Therefore, adequate sampling and effective disruption of the oocysts are essential to improve the accuracy of DNA detection by PCR. The aims of this study were to evaluate the suitability of six protocols for DNA extraction from Eimeria spp. present in bovine and sheep. Twenty pools of fecal samples from cattle (10 pools) and sheep (10 pools) were distributed to six DNA extraction protocols: commercial kit, commercial kit with modification, DNAzol, cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), glass beads and commercial kit for fecal samples. Fecal samples were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR. Among the protocols tested, CTAB was determined to be most suitable for DNA extraction from oocysts (90% of DNA detection by PCR); DNAzol and CTAB resulted in higher DNA detection from bovine samples (80%). CTAB and commercial kit with modification improved PCR detection of Eimeria spp. in sheep samples, with positive amplification of DNA in all tested samples.

Abstract in Portuguese:

A detecção molecular de espécies de Eimeria em amostras fecais pode ser útil para fins experimentais e de diagnóstico. No entanto, a quantidade de parasitas nas fezes e a parede do oocisto são um obstáculo nos protocolos de extração de DNA. Portanto, uma amostragem adequada e a ruptura efetiva dos oocistos são essenciais para melhorar a precisão da detecção de DNA por PCR. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar seis protocolos para extração de DNA de Eimeria spp. em amostras de bovinos e ovinos. Foram distribuídos 20 grupos de amostras fecais de bovinos (10 grupos) e ovinos (10 grupos) em seis protocolos de extração de DNA: kit comercial, kit comercial com modificação, DNAzol, brometo de cetil-trimetil amônio (CTAB), pérolas de vidro e kit comercial para amostras fecais. As amostras fecais foram submetidas à extração de DNA e PCR. Entre os protocolos testados, CTAB foi considerado o mais adequado para extração de DNA de oocistos (90% de detecção de DNA por PCR); DNAzol e CTAB resultaram em maior detecção de DNA em amostras de bovinos (80%). CTAB e kit comercial com modificação melhoraram a detecção por PCR de Eimeria spp. em amostras de ovinos, amplificação positiva de DNA em todas as amostras testadas.


#2 - Consecutive outbreaks caused by Eimeria zuernii in calves on a rural property located in the municipality of São João da Boa Vista, State of São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract in English:

We report consecutive outbreaks (August 2015 and 2016) of disease caused by Eimeria zuernii in Canchim and Nelore calves about 45 days of age on a rural property in the municipality of São João da Boa Vista, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The first outbreak infected 78 calves (32 Nelore and 46 Canchim) between 35 and 55 days of age. The second outbreak infected 66 calves (36 Nelore and 47 Canchim) between 30 and 45 days of age. Some calves had bloody diarrhea and were dehydrated. Feces were collected from all animals (cows and calves) for coproparasitological examination and quantification of parasite eggs and oocysts per gram. The consecutive outbreaks in the 30 to 55 day-old calves occurred during the dry season (August). These outbreaks were caused by a high degree of infection by E. zuernii. Clinical signs (bloody diarrhea) and mortality of the calves triggered by eimeriosis/dehydration occurred in 8.3 and 1.4% of the herd in 2015 and 2016, respectively. These results highlight the importance of conducting field studies to better understand the parasitic dynamics of E. zuernii in calves younger than three months. Identifying the sources of infection, such as the water ingested by the animals, is also necessary, so that practical husbanddry can be recommended and adopted by the producers, to reduce the damage caused by outbreaks of Eimeria spp. in cattle herds.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar surtos consecutivos (Agosto de 2015 e 2016) ocasionado por Eimeria zuernii em bezerros de corte, Canchim e Nelore, com aproximadamente 45 dias de vida, em uma propriedade rural localizada no município de São João da Boa Vista, estado de São Paulo. O primeiro surto foi diagnosticado em um lote composto por 78 bezerros, entre 35 e 55 dias de idade. Dos 78 bezerros, 32 eram Nelore e os outros 46 Canchim. Já o segundo, ocorreu em um novo lote de 66 bezerros (sendo 36 Nelore e 47 Canchim), com idade entre 30 e 45 dias. Alguns animais apresentaram diarreia sanguinolenta e desidratação. Colheitas de fezes de todos os animais (vacas e bezerros) foram realizadas para realização de exame coproparasitológico e quantificação de ovos e oocistos por grama (OPG e OoPG) de fezes de parasitos. Com base nos resultados encontrados neste estudo, é possível afirmar que os surtos consecutivos em bezerros de corte entre 30 e 55 dias de idade, na época seca do ano (agosto), foram desencadeados pelo elevado grau de infecção destes animais por E. zuernii. Analisando os dois anos em que os surtos ocorreram, a presença de sinais clínicos (diarreia sanguinolenta) e a mortalidade de bezerros desencadeada pela eimeriose/desidratação, aconteceram em 8,3% 1,4% do rebanho, respectivamente. Estes resultados destacam a importância em se realizar pesquisas de campo, com o objetivo de se melhor entender a dinâmica de parasitismo de E. zuernii e E. bovis em bezerros com idade inferior a três meses, em função dos motivos já discutidos neste estudo. Além disso, é necessário que se investigue as possíveis fontes de infecção, como a água ingerida pelos animais, para que condutas práticas possam ser adotadas/recomendadas aos proprietários, diminuindo desta maneira os prejuízos ocasionados por surtos de Eimeria spp em rebanhos bovinos.


#3 - Effectiveness of lasalocid assessment and some epidemiological factors of Eimeria spp. parasitizing Nellore calves kept on pasture, 37(2):121-128

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Cruvinel L.B., Borges D.G.L., Nicaretta J.E., Bastos T.S.A., Moro E., Gama R.D., Borges F.A. & Lopes W.D.Z. 2017. [Effectiveness of lasalocid assessment and some epidemiological factors of Eimeria spp. parasitizing Nellore calves kept on pasture.] Avaliação da eficácia da lasalocida e de alguns fatores epidemiológicos de Eimeria spp. parasitando bezerros Nelore mantidos em regime de pastejo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(2):121-128. Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-050, Brazil. E-mail: wdzlopes@hotmail.com The main importance of eimeriosis in cattle is due to lower performance shown with the disease in its sub-clinical form. This study evaluated the efficacy of lasalocid used against Eimeria spp. parasitizing calves. We also evaluated the weight gain of calves submitted to different treatments and analyzed some epidemiological factors that might interfere with Eimeria infection; 288 calves were used in the study. The calves of treatment 1 received protein mineral salt in low consumption without lasalocid, while the calves of treatment 2 received protein mineral salt on low consumption with lasalocid, administered orally to 4 to 10-month-old calves. Harvest of feces and weight control was made on days 0 (before the start of the experiment), at weaning, and 30 and 60 days after weaning (DAW). Evaluation of some epidemiological factors which could be related to infection by Eimeria spp. of the calves, such as weaning, sex and time of year, were analyzed, taking into account the results regarding the 144 calves of the control group. Nine species of Eimeria were identified in descending order: E. brasiliensis, E. wyomingensis, E. bovis, E. canadian, E. zuernii, E. auburnensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. pellita and E. cylindrica. Unexpectedly, decrease in parasite load could be observed after weaning. Even the farm did not adopt management measures aimed for greater productivity, as Artificial Insemination in Fixed Time, which in turn ends up with increase of the number of births and animal unit per hectare at a certain period of year, high parasitism of coccidia was diagnosed in calves of the control group. Oocyst counts per gram (OPG) of calves treated with lasalocid were significantly lower (P≤0.05) in the control group. The compound achieved ≥95% efficacy against the parasite in question. At the end of the study, calves fed lasalocid gained on average 7.2kg (p≤0.05) more than calves in the control group. For a farm that aims to sell calves soon after weaning, is recommended to start treatment with lasalocid, with the creep-feeding, from an age of three months on, since the weight gain calves treated with lasalocid was significantly (p=0.05) higher compared with the weight gain of the control group after five months of treatment. The difference in weight gain of calves treated with lasalocid compared with caves in the control group may also be partially related to the infection by Eimeria spp., as discussed in this paper.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Cruvinel L.B., Borges D.G.L., Nicaretta J.E., Bastos T.S.A., Moro E., Gama R.D., Borges F.A. & Lopes W.D.Z. 2017. [Effectiveness of lasalocid assessment and some epidemiological factors of Eimeria spp. parasitizing Nellore calves kept on pasture.] Avaliação da eficácia da lasalocida e de alguns fatores epidemiológicos de Eimeria spp. parasitando bezerros Nelore mantidos em regime de pastejo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(2):121-128. Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-050, Brazil. E-mail: wdzlopes@hotmail.com A principal importância da eimeriose em bovinos, se deve ao baixo desempenho produtivo que os animais demonstram quando esta enfermidade apresenta-se sob a forma sub-clínica. Como objetivos, o presente trabalho avaliou a eficácia do uso da lasalocida sódica contra espécies de Eimeria spp. parasitando bezerros; avaliou também o desempenho ponderal dos animais submetidos aos diferentes tratamentos e analisou alguns fatores epidemiológicos que possam interferir na infecção por Eimeria nos bezerros. Foram utilizados 288 bezerros no dia 0 do estudo. Os animais pertencentes ao tratamento 01 receberam sal mineral proteinado de baixo consumo sem adição de lasalocida, enquanto que os bezerros do Tratamento 02 sal mineral proteinado de baixo consumo, com adição de lasalocida sódica, administrado via oral para bezerros dos quatro/cinco/seis meses até dez meses de idade. Colheita de fezes e pesagem dos animais foram realizadas nos dias 0 (antes do início do experimento), na desmama, 30 e 60 dias após desmama (DPD). A avaliação de alguns fatores epidemiológicos que pudessem ser relacionados com a infecção por Eimeria spp nos bezerros, como o desmame, sexo e época do ano, foram analisados neste estudo, levando-se em consideração os resultados encontrados durante todo estudo, para os 144 animais pertencentes ao grupo controle. Foram identificadas nove espécies de Eimeria nos bezerros em ordem decrescente: E. brasiliensis, E. wyomingensis, E. bovis, E. canadenses, E. zuernii, E. auburnensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. pellita e E. cylindrica. Inesperadamente, diminuição na carga parasitária dos animais pode ser observada após o desmame. Mesmo a fazenda não adotando medidas de manejo que visam maior produtividade como a Inseminação Artificial em Tempo Fixo, que por sua vez acaba aumentando o número de nascimentos e unidade animal/hectare em uma determinada época do ano, elevado parasitismo pelo coccídio em questão foi diagnosticado nos bezerros pertencentes ao grupo controle. Talvez a época do ano em que o estudo foi realizado pode ter influenciado neste aspecto. As contagens de oocistos por grama (OoPG) de fezes para Eimeria dos animais tratados com lasalocida foram estatisticamente inferiores (P≤0,05) as do grupo controle após o início do estudo. O composto alcançou eficácia ≥95% contra o parasito em questão. No final do estudo, os animais que receberam lasalocida ganharam em média, 7,2kg a mais (P≤0,05) que os bezerros pertencentes ao grupo controle. Em propriedades que tem como objetivo a venda de bezerros logo após a desmama, recomenda-se o início do tratamento com a lasalocida, junto ao creep-feeding, a partir de três messes de idade, uma vez que diferencial no ganho em peso médio dos bezerros tratados foi significativamente (P≤0,05) mais elevado, em comparação ao grupo controle, após cinco meses de tratamento com o referido composto. Apesar de a lasalocida ser utilizada como um aditivo alimentar para animais, a diferença no ganho em peso vivo médio entre animais tratados com a lasalocida, em comparação a animais pertencentes ao grupo controle, também pode ser relacionada, em partes, a infecção dos animais por Eimeria spp., conforme discutido neste artigo, entretanto, futuros estudos devem ser conduzidos para comprovar esta hipótese.


#4 - Anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua hydroalcoholic extract in poultry beds contaminated with Eimeria sp., 35(7):649-651

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Sprenger L.K., Campestrini L.H., Yamassaki F.T., Buzatti A., Maurer J.B.B., Baggio S.F.Z., Magalhães P.M. & Molento M.B. 2015. [Anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua hydroalcoholic extract in poultry beds contaminated with Eimeria sp.] Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(7):649-651. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários 1540, Juvevê, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brazil. E-mail: lew.sprenger@gmail.com The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia annua against oocysts of Eimeria sp. in contaminated poultry beds. The extract was produced after 7 days of storage at 4°C, which was used to perform the phytochemical screening; the artemisinin measurement; the total phenolic; antioxidant testing and toxicity test. To test the anticoccidial activity, the birds space composed of shaver trees, were contaminated with 5000 oocysts. Four treatment were formed, in triplicate, were used in different concentrations as G1: 12mg/mL, G2:= 9mg/mL, G3: 6mg/mL, and C-: water. After contamination 800 mL of the herbal at different concentrations were sprayed on the bed and collected, in triplicate, 10 cm2 each site, randomly, at times: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after application. In phytochemical analysis, were shown compounds with antiparasitic properties, such as flavonoids and tannins. The herbal contained 59.409±1.47mg/dL artemisinin. The product at a concentration of 12mg.mL-1 showed efficacy from 44.25 to 40.71%. The results of biochemical tests, with the in vitro test showed that the extract has produced high potential for combating Eimeria sp.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Sprenger L.K., Campestrini L.H., Yamassaki F.T., Buzatti A., Maurer J.B.B., Baggio S.F.Z., Magalhães P.M. & Molento M.B. 2015. [Anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua hydroalcoholic extract in poultry beds contaminated with Eimeria sp.] Efeito anticoccidiano de extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua em camas de aves contaminadas com Eimeria sp. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(7):649-651. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários 1540, Juvevê, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brazil. E-mail: lew.sprenger@gmail.com O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato hidroalcoólico de Artemisia annua frente a oocistos de Eimeria sp. em camas contaminadas. O extrato foi produzido com 7 dias de percolação a 4°C, sendo posteriormente realizada a marcha fitoquímica; dosagem de fenóis totais, quantificação de artemisinina, ensaio antioxidante e teste de toxicidade. Para testar a atividade anticoccidiana, camas de aves compostas de cepilho de árvores foram contaminadas com 5000 oocistos. Foram formados quatro tratamentos, em triplicata, nos quais foram usadas diferentes concentrações, sendo G1: 12mg/mL, G2: 8mg/mL, G3: 4mg/mL e C-: água. Após a contaminação, foram aspergidos, 800 mL dos extratos nas diferentes concentrações sobre as camas e coletadas, em triplicatas, 10 cm2 de cada local, aleatoriamente, nos tempos: 0, 3, 6, 24, 48, e 72 horas após a aplicação. Nas análises fitoquímicas, foram evidenciados diversos compostos com propriedades antiparasitárias, como flavonoides e taninos. O fitoterápico continha 59,409±1,47µg/dL de artemisinina. O produto na concentração de 12mg.mL-1 apresentou eficácia entre 45,5 e 42,1%. Os resultados dos testes bioquímicos, juntamente com os encontrados no teste anticoccidiano, evidenciaram que o extrato produzido possui alto potencial para combater Eimeria sp.


#5 - Virulence and biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis isolates from cloacal swabs of broilers infected with Eimeria spp., 33(12):1433-1440

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Cassenego A.P.V., Ellwanger J., d’Azevedo P.A., Ribeiro A.M.L., frazzon J. & frazzon A.P.G. 2013. [Virulence and biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis isolates from cloacal swabs of broilers infected with Eimeria spp.] Virulência e formação de biofilme microbiano por Enterococcus faecalis isolados de swabs cloacais de frangos de corte infectados com Eimeria spp. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(12):1433-1440. Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Sarmento Leite 500, Porto Alegre, RS 90050-170, Brazil. E-mail: ana.cassenego@ufrgs.br The microbiota dynamics in the gastrointestinal tract (GT) of animals can be disrupted by pathogens, such as Eimeria spp. Enterococci are saprophytic bacteria that colonize the GT of mammals and birds. The influence on the intestinal microbiota is related to the adaptive capacity of bacteria to adhere to host cells and colonize the mucosal cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of virulence genes ace, agg and bopABCD operon in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from cloacal swabs of broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. and fed with a standard diet supplemented or not with anticoccidial (monensin), and, also to evaluate for the ability of these strains to form biofilms under in vitro conditions. A total of 70 E. faecalis were selected and the agg gene was more frequent in strains isolated from the broilers treated with anticoccidial (92.3%) when compared to the group that not received anticoccidial (70.5%). On the other hand, the ace and bopABCD operon genes showed no significant difference between the two groups of broilers (P>0.005). The E. faecalis isolated from the broilers treated with anticoccidial showed a higher frequency of strong biofilm formation when growing in medium supplemented with glucose (92.3-88.5%) and urine (77%) when compared with enterococci isolated from broilers that not received anticoccidial. It was observed that E. faecalis isolated from broilers treated with anticoccidial showed a higher frequency of virulence factors genes and stronger biofilms formation, indicating better adaptation of the isolates in healthy intestinal environment.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Cassenego A.P.V., Ellwanger J., d’Azevedo P.A., Ribeiro A.M.L., frazzon J. & frazzon A.P.G. 2013. [Virulence and biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis isolates from cloacal swabs of broilers infected with Eimeria spp.] Virulência e formação de biofilme microbiano por Enterococcus faecalis isolados de swabs cloacais de frangos de corte infectados com Eimeria spp. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(12):1433-1440. Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Sarmento Leite 500, Porto Alegre, RS 90050-170, Brazil. E-mail: ana.cassenego@ufrgs.br A dinâmica da microbiota no trato gastrointestinal (TG) de animais pode ser afetada por patógenos, tais como Eimeria spp. Os enterococos são bactérias saprófitas que colonizam o TG de mamíferos e aves. A influência sobre a microbiota intestinal está relacionada com a capacidade de adaptação das bactérias em se aderir às células hospedeiras e de colonizar as células das mucosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a frequência de genes de virulência ace, agg e operon do bopABCD em Enterococcus faecalis isolados de swabs cloacais de frangos de corte desafiados com Eimeria spp e alimentados com dietas padrões suplementadas ou não com anticoccidiano (monesina) e também avaliar a capacidade dessas cepas em formar biofilmes sob condições in vitro. Um total de 70 E. faecalis foram selecionadas e o gene agg foi mais freqüente em cepas isoladas de frangos de corte alimentados com anticoccidiano (92,3%) quando comparado ao grupo que não recebeu anticoccidiano (70,5%). Por outro lado, os genes ace e do operon bopABCD não demostraram nenhuma diferença significativa entre os dois grupos de frangos (P>0,005). Os E. faecalis isolados de frangos de corte alimentados com anticoccidiano demostraram uma maior frequência de fortes aderentes quando crescendo em meio suplementado com glicose (92,3-88,5%) e urina (77%), quando comparado com enterococos isolados de frangos que não receberam anticoccidiano. Observou-se que E. faecalis isolados de frangos tratados com anticoccidiano mostraram uma maior frequêencia dos genes dos fatores de virulência e de perfil de fortes formadores de biofilme, o que indica uma melhor adaptação dos isolados em ambiente intestinal saudável.


#6 - Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): new characteristic features and diagnostic tools, 33(12):1441-1447

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Berto B.P., Borba H.R., Lima V.M., Flausino W., Teixeira-Filho W.L. & Lopes C.W.G. 2013. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): new characteristic features and diagnostic tools. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(12):1441-1447. Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brazil. E-mail: bertobp@ufrrj.br The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Berto B.P., Borba H.R., Lima V.M., Flausino W., Teixeira-Filho W.L. & Lopes C.W.G. 2013. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): new characteristic features and diagnostic tools. [Eimeria spp. de codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica): novas características e ferramentas de diagnóstico.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(12):1441-1447. Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brazil. E-mail: bertobp@ufrrj.br A codorna japonesa Coturnix japonica originária do norte da África, Europa e Ásia, é utilizada mundialmente como um animal experimental e modelo para avicultura. O presente trabalho caracteriza Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai e Eimeria uzura recuperadas de C. japonica. Baseado no fato de que as codornas têm uma distribuição global, como são os seus coccídios, os resultados deste estudo devem propiciar o diagnóstico destas Eimeria spp. em outras regiões e continentes. Eimeria bateri demonstrou a maior intensidade de infecção e eliminaram oocistos a partir do quarto dia após infecção, em contraste E. tsunodai e E. uzura eliminaram oocistos a partir do quinto dia após infecção. As três espécies foram morfometricamente semelhantes e polimórficas. No entanto, a aplicação da regressão linear, histogramas e ANOVA proveram meios para a identificação destas espécies. Finalmente, o algoritmo foi totalmente eficiente uma vez que valores resultantes não foram sobrepostos.


#7 - Oregano, rosemery, cinnamon essential oil and pepper extract to control Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium in broiler chickens, 32(5):411-418

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Bona T.D.M.M., Pickler L., Miglino L.B., Kuritza L.N., Vasconcelos S.P. & Santin E. 2012. [Oregano, rosemery, cinnamon essential oil and pepper extract to control Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium in broiler chickens.] Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(5):411-418. Laboratório de Microbiologia e Ornitopatologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários 1540, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brasil. E-mail: larissapickler@yahoo.com.br The efficiency of a product in broiler feed containing essential oil of oregano, rosemary, cinnamon and extract of red pepper (plant compost) in the control of Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium was evaluated. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the product. In the first experiment the efficiency of this product to control Clostridium perfringens after challenge with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella was assessed. Day old chicks were allotted into three groups: T1 - control diet without growth promoter, T2 - diet with avilamycin (10ppm), and T3 - diet with addition of the plant compost (100ppm). The use of the plant compost in broiler diets reduced specific lesions of E. maxima and E. tenella at 14 days after inoculation and reduced the count of colony forming units (CFU) of Clostridium perfringens in the ceca comparing to the control group. In the second trial the efficiency of the same product in birds challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. Day old birds were submitted to three experimental diets: T1 - control diet without antibiotics growth promoter, T2 - diet with 10ppm Avilamycin, T3 - diet with 100ppm of the plant compost mentioned above. At 21 days of age all birds were inoculated with 105 CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis. The use of the plant compost and avilamycin decreased the excretion of Salmonella in poultry 72 hours after the inoculation. The use of the plant compost increased villous/CD3+ cells in the duodenum, compared to group avilamycin and control, but had no effect on the expression of these cells in the cecum.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Bona T.D.M.M., Pickler L., Miglino L.B., Kuritza L.N., Vasconcelos S.P. & Santin E. 2012. [Oregano, rosemery, cinnamon essential oil and pepper extract to control Salmonella, Eimeria and Clostridium in broiler chickens.] Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(5):411-418. Laboratório de Microbiologia e Ornitopatologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários 1540, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brasil. E-mail: larissapickler@yahoo.com.br Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm); e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm). O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI) como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC) de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 105 UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco.


#8 - Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl) against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens, 31(5):425-429

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Manzoor Z., Munawar S.H., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl) against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(5):425-429. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad - 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm) and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Manzoor Z., Munawar S.H., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl) against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(5):425-429. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad - 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm) and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.


#9 - Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella, 31(2):99-103

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Munawar S.H., Manzoor Z., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(2):99-103. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10–19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Munawar S.H., Manzoor Z., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(2):99-103. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10–19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.


#10 - Eimerid coccidia in capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae) from southern Bahia, Brazil, p.323-328

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Albuquerque G.R., Berto B.P., Catenacci L., Cunha Nogueira S.S., Nogueira-Filho S.L.G. & Lopes C.W.G. 2008. Eimerid coccidia in capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae) from southern Bahia, Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(7):323-328 Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BR415 Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, BA 45662-000, Brazil. E-mail: gralbu@uesc.br Two eimerid coccidia are reported in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) population kept in captivity in the south of Bahia, northeastern Brazil (14° 47’ 57.89’’ S and 39° 10’ 10.58" W). Oocysts of Eimeria ichiloensis are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 26.2 x 21.7mm with bi-layered wall, the outer yellow and sculptured and the inner, dark and smooth. Residuum is absent, but usually 2-3 polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoid, 12.0 x 7.6mm. Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. Oocysts of Eimeria trinidadensis are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 22.2 x 19.6mm with bi-layered wall, the outer yellow and smooth, and the inner dark and smooth. Residuum is absent, but one polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoid, 11.0 x 6.9mm. Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. Based on these descriptions and previous ones it can be concluded that these coccidea species are widely dispersed in capybaras in South America.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Albuquerque G.R., Berto B.P., Catenacci L., Cunha Nogueira S.S., Nogueira-Filho S.L.G. & Lopes C.W.G. 2008. Eimerid coccidia in capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae) from southern Bahia, Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(7):323-328 Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, BR415 Km 16, Salobrinho, Ilhéus, BA 45662-000, Brazil. E-mail: gralbu@uesc.br Two eimerid coccidia are reported in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) population kept in captivity in the south of Bahia, northeastern Brazil (14° 47’ 57.89’’ S and 39° 10’ 10.58" W). Oocysts of Eimeria ichiloensis are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 26.2 x 21.7mm with bi-layered wall, the outer yellow and sculptured and the inner, dark and smooth. Residuum is absent, but usually 2-3 polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoid, 12.0 x 7.6mm. Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. Oocysts of Eimeria trinidadensis are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 22.2 x 19.6mm with bi-layered wall, the outer yellow and smooth, and the inner dark and smooth. Residuum is absent, but one polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoid, 11.0 x 6.9mm. Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present. Based on these descriptions and previous ones it can be concluded that these coccidea species are widely dispersed in capybaras in South America.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV