Resultado da pesquisa (5)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Gonçalves J

#1 - Biocidal potential of Eugenia pyriformis essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the free-living cycle

Abstract in English:

Brazil has one of the largest commercial cattle herds in the world, which naturally coexist with an enormous number of parasitic species. Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is among these species, interfering with animal productivity and causing losses to the beef and dairy cattle sector. The use of chemical acaricides in the control of this mite has resulted in the emergence of resistant populations. In this sense, alternative control measures using plants as sources of botanical acaricides have shown to be effective. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess is a Brazilian plant with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity; however, there are no reports on its acaricidal activity in the literature. The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal and larvicidal potential of E. pyriformis leaf essential oil (EO) on southern cattle tick at different stages of the reproductive cycle. E. pyriformis leaves were collected and dried, and had their EO extracted by hydrodistillation (3h) using a modified Clevenger apparatus. Chemical analysis was performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and 32 compounds belonging to the sesquiterpene class were identified: hydrocarbons (17.98%) and oxygenated forms (81.96%), with spathulenol (43.65%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.17%) as the most common. The EO was evaluated by the Adult Immersion Test at the concentrations (500.00 to 3.12mg/mL) in which the following parameters were measured: mortality of females (%), hatchability of eggs (%), and product efficiency (%). Larvae were assessed by the Larval Packet Test at concentrations ranging from 25.00 to 0.00004mg/mL. Lethal concentrations (LC) required for killing 50 and 99.9% of adult females and larvae were determined using Probit analysis. LC50 and LC99.9 of EO were 0.06 and 24.60mg/mL and 1,208.80 and 2,538mg/mL for larvae and adult females, respectively. Action of the EO in the free-living cycle of R. (B.) microplus larvae was another parameter assessed. To this end, the larvae were deposited in pots containing Brachiaria decumbens and, after migration to the leaf apex, a solution containing LC99.9 (24.60mg/mL) of the EO was sprayed. After 24h, 72.25% of the larvae had died, indicating stability of the EO when subjected to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanism of action through which the EO killed the larvae and adult females was investigated by the Bioautographic Method, which showed inhibition of 3.15mg/mL of the EO on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. The results found in the present experiment indicate that E. pyriformis essential oil is an alternative in the control of southern cattle tick in the larval (parasitic) and free-living cycle (non-parasitic) stages under field conditions.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O Brasil dispõe de um dos maiores rebanhos bovinos comerciais do mundo, sendo natural que junto a esse rebanho, coexista uma enorme quantidade de espécies parasitárias; dentre estes o carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus que interfere na produtividade animal, causando prejuízos à pecuária de corte e leite. A utilização de acaricidas químicos no controle deste ácaro tem causado o surgimento de populações resistentes e neste sentido, controles alternativos utilizando plantas como fontes de acaricidas botânicos têm se mostrado eficazes. Eugenia pyriformis Cambess é uma planta brasileira com atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana, entretanto não há relatos da atividade acaricida. O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu na avaliação do potencial acaricida e larvicida do óleo essencial das folhas de E. pyriformis sobre o carrapato bovino nos diferentes estágios do ciclo reprodutivo. As folhas foram coletadas, secas e o OE extraído por hidrodestilação (3 horas) em aparelho Clevenger modificado. A análise química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM) sendo identificados 32 compostos, pertencentes à classe sesquiterpenos: hidrocarbonetos (17.98%) e oxigenados (81.96%); tendo como majoritários o spathulenol (43,65%) e caryophylene oxide (12,17%). O OE foi avaliado pelo teste de imersão de adultos nas concentrações (500,00 a 3,12mg/mL) onde foram mensurados os parâmetros: mortalidade das fêmeas (%), eclodibilidade dos ovos (%) e eficiência do produto (%). As larvas foram avaliadas pelo teste de imersão larval (Larval Packet Test) nas concentrações que variaram de 25,00 a 0,00004mg/mL. Foram determinadas as concentrações letais (CLs) necessárias para matar 50 e 99,9% das fêmeas adultas e das larvas utilizando a análise de Probitos. As CL50 e CL99,9 do OE foram (0,06 e 24,60mg/mL) para as larvas e (1.208,80 e 2.538mg/mL) para as fêmeas adultas, respectivamente. Outro parâmetro avaliado em nossa pesquisa foi mensurar a ação do OE no ciclo de vida livre das larvas de R. (B.) microplus; onde as larvas foram depositadas em vasos com Brachiaria decumbens e após migração destas para o ápice das folhas, foi aspergido solução contendo a CL99,9 (24,60mg/mL) do OE. Após 24 horas, 72,25% das larvas morreram indicando que houve estabilidade do OE quando submetido a condições de temperatura e umidade não controladas. O mecanismo de ação pelo qual o OE matou as larvas e fêmeas adultas foi investigado pelo método bioautográfico, indicando uma inibição de 3,15mg/mL do óleo essencial sobre a enzima acetilcolinesterase (AChE). Os resultados encontrados no presente experimento indicaram que o óleo essencial de E. pyriformis é uma alternativa no controle do carrapato bovino no estágio larval (parasitário) e no ciclo de vida livre (estágio não parasitário) em condições de campo.


#2 - Diagnosis of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira intermedia in hens and laying hens in the western region of Paraná through bacterial isolation and identification in qPCR

Abstract in English:

Bacteria of the genus Brachyspira can cause enteric diseases in poultry causing a decrease in productivity. The occurrence of this disease in chickens has already been verified in countries such as Australia, Italy, and the United States, but in Brazil, until now, epidemiological studies about Brachyspira sp. frequency were only carried out on pig farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of bacteria of the genus Brachyspira sp. through isolation and confirmation of the species Brachyspira pilosicoli, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira intermedia using the qPCR technique. Samples from 110 hens aged from 35 to 82 weeks were collected, 40 were from commercial egg farms and 70 were from laying hens matrices. For the first evaluation, bacterial isolation was performed from the feces. Positive samples were submitted to qPCR to identify the three species proposed. Cecum fragments of the birds were collected and fixed in formaldehyde for histological evaluation and counting of goblet cells. Of the 110 samples, 48 characteristic isolates of Brachyspira (43.6%) were obtained and of these in qPCR 13 identified as B. hyodysenteriae (11.8%) and 5 all from the same farm as Brachyspira intermedia (4.5%), 2 samples were positive for both agents (1.8%) and 28 were not characterized by qPCR (25.5%). None histopathological lesions were observed in the chicken cecum and no significant statistical difference was noticed in the count of goblet cells of the positive hens. It can be evidenced by the occurrence of Brachyspira sp. in laying farms and hens in Brazil, with special relevance to Brachyspira intermedia that can be potentially pathogenic for these animals.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Bactérias do gênero Brachyspira podem ocasionar enfermidades entéricas em aves acarretando a queda de produtividade. A ocorrência desta enfermidade em galinhas já foi verificada em países como a Austrália, Itália e Estados Unidos, porém no Brasil, até o momento, trabalhos epidemiológicos sobre a frequencia de Brachyspira sp. só foram realizados em granjas de suínos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de bactérias do gênero Brachyspira sp. através do isolamento e confirmação das espécies Brachyspira pilosicoli, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e Brachyspira intermedia utilizando a técnica de qPCR. Foram coletadas amostras de 110 aves com idade entre 35 e 82 semanas, sendo 40 de granjas de postura comercial e 70 de granjas de matrizes de corte. Para avaliação primeiramente procedeu-se o isolamento bacteriano a partir das fezes. As amostras positivas foram submetidas a qPCR para identificação das três espécies propostas. Fragmentos de ceco das aves foram coletados e fixados em formol para avaliação histológica e contagem de células caliciformes. Das 110 amostras foram obtidos 48 isolamentos característicos de Brachyspira (43,6%) e destes na qPCR 13 identificadas como B. hyodysenteriae (11,8%) e 5 sendo todas da mesma granja (4,5%) como B. intermedia, 2 amostras foram positivas para ambos os agentes (1,8%) e 28 não foram caracterizadas através da qPCR (25,5%). Não foram observadas alterações histopatológicas no ceco e diferença estatística significativa na contagem de células caliciformes das aves positivas. Conclui‑se que a Brachyspira sp. é frequente em granjas de poedeiras e matrizes de corte no Brasil, com especial relevância para a B. intermedia que possui potência patogênico para estas aves.


#3 - Rapid identification of bovine mastitis pathogens by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

Abstract in English:

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be an alternative method for identification of bacteria via their protein profile spectra, being able to identify bacteria at the genus, species and even at subspecies level. With the aim of large-scale identification of pathogens causing mastitis by this platform, a total of 305 isolates of bacteria identified from cows with subclinical mastitis were analyzed by conventional microbiological culture (MC) as well as by MALDI-TOF MS coupled with Biotyper data processing. Approximately 89% of the identifications performed by MALDI-TOF MS were consistent with results obtained by MC. From the remaining isolates (11%), 6.3% of isolates were classified as misidentified (discordance for both genus and species level), and 4.7% showed identification agreement at the genus level but not at the species level, being classified as unidentified at species level. The disagreement results were mostly associated with identification of Streptococcus and Enterococcus species probably due to the narrow phenotypic similarity between these two genera. These disagreement results suggest that biochemical assays might be prone to identification errors and, MALDI-TOF MS therefore may be an alternative to overcome incorrect species-specific identification. Standard microbiological methods for bovine mastitis diagnosis are time consuming, laborious and prone to errors for some bacteria genera. In our study, we showed that MALDI-TOF MS coupled with Biotyper may be an alternative method for large-scale identification of bacteria isolated from milk samples compared to classical microbiological routine protocols.

Abstract in Portuguese:

A espectrometria de massas (MALDI-TOF MS) tem mostrado ser um método alternativo para a identificação de bactérias, sendo capaz de identificar as bactérias causadoras de mastite em gênero, espécie ou até mesmo subespécie. Com o objetivo de identificar os patógenos causadores de mastite em grande-escala por esta plataforma, um total de 305 isolados bacterianos oriundos de vacas com mastite subclínica foram analisados pela cultura microbiológica convencional (CM) e pela MALDI-TOF MS acoplada ao software Biotyper. Aproximadamente 89% das identificações realizadas pela MALDI-TOF MS foram consistentes com os resultados obtidos pela CM. Do restante de isolados bacterianos (11%), 6,3% foram classificados como identificação errônea (discordância de gênero e espécie), e 4,7% apresentaram concordância de gênero, mas discordância da espécie. Os resultados que apresentaram divergência estavam mais associados com a identificação das espécies de Streptococcus spp. e Enterococcus spp. devido à similaridade fenotípica entre os dois gêneros. Estes resultados divergentes sugerem que os ensaios bioquímicos podem ser propensos a erros de identificação, por isso a MALDI-TOF MS pode ser considerada um método alternativo para superar os erros de identificação da CM. A cultura microbiológica padrão e os ensaios bioquímicos utilizados na identificação de agentes causadores de mastite são demorados, trabalhosos e propensos a erros quando utilizados na identificação em nível de espécie. No presente estudo, demonstramos que a MALDI-TOF MS acoplada ao software Biotyper pode ser considerada um método alternativo de identificação de bactérias causadoras de mastite em grande-escala quando comparado com a cultura microbiológica convencional.


#4 - Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis, 34(10):947-952

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Beuron D.C., Cortinhas C.S., Botaro B.G., Macedo S.N., Gonçalves J.L., Brito M.A.V.P. & Santos M.V. 2014. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(10):947-952. Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brazil. E-mail: mveiga@usp.br The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7%) were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210) of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18), dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11) and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57) and penicillin (OR=4.69). In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Beuron D.C., Cortinhas C.S., Botaro B.G., Macedo S.N., Gonçalves J.L., Brito M.A.V.P. & Santos M.V. 2014. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. [Fatores de risco associados com a resistência antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus aureus isolados da mastite bovina.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(10):947-952. Departamento de Nutrição e Produção Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte 225, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brazil. E-mail: mveiga@usp.br Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os fatores de risco associados às práticas de manejo e tratamento de mastite e a resistência aos antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de vacas com mastite. Foram selecionados para o presente estudo 13 rebanhos localizados na região de Pirassununga/SP. Foi aplicado um questionário contendo informações para o levantamento de fatores de risco relacionados à resistência aos antimicrobianos e às práticas de manejo e tratamento de mastite. Após a seleção dos rebanhos e aplicação dos questionários, foram utilizados 210 isolados de S. aureus de amostras compostas de leite coletadas durante 24 meses, em quatro períodos, para realização dos testes de resistência. Os antimicrobianos testados foram: ampicilina 10µg, clindamicina 2µg, penicilina 1µg, eftiofour 30µg, gentamicina 10µg, sulfatrimetropin 25µg, enrofloxacina 5µg, sulfonamida 300µg, tetraciclina 30µg, oxacilina 1µg, cefalotina 30µg e eritromicina 5µg. As variáveis que foram significativamente associadas à resistência de S. aureus foram: o tratamento da mastite clínica para ampicilina (OR = 2,18), o tratamento da vaca seca para enrofloxacina (OR=2,11), e o não envio de amostras de leite para a cultura microbiológica e testes de sensibilidade, para ampicilina (OR=2,57) e penicilina (OR=4,69). Em conclusão, a identificação dos fatores de risco para a resistência S. aureus frente aos principais agentes antimicrobianos, utilizados para tratamento da mastite, pode auxiliar o estabelecimento do uso prudente de antimicrobianos na produção de leite.


#5 - Ganho de peso e custos em bovinos de corte submetidos a dois tipos de suplementos minerais

Abstract in English:

Malafaia P., Peixoto P.V., Gonçalves J.C.S., Moreira A.L., Costa D.P.B. & Correa W.S. 2004. [Daily weight gain and costs of beef cattle receiving two types of mineral supple-ments.] Ganho de peso e custos em bovinos de corte submetidos a dois tipos de suplementos minerais. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3):160-164. Depto Nutrição Animal e Pastagem, Instituto de Zootecnia, UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brazil. E-mail: malafaia1@ig.com.br The daily weight gain and economic aspects of beef cattle raised on tropical pastures receiving two types of mineral supplements were evaluated during 112-183 days during the wet season in 4 herds. On each farm the animals were divided into two groups. For one group a commercial mineral mixture was used, and to the other group a selective mineral mixture containing only Na, P, Cu and Co was offered. The cattle were weighed every 30 days, and the mineral supplement intake was measured monthly. The daily weight gain of the animals receiving the selective mineral mixture was greater in three farms. Only on the second farm the group receiving the commercial mineral mixture had a superior daily weight gain. The daily intake of the selective mineral mixture was lower in all groups and was attributed to the high amount of NaCl in these mixtures. The selective mineral supplementation was 3 up to 7 times more economic than the conventional supplementation with a “complete” mineral mix. Throughout the experimental period the animals did not show any direct or indirect clinical signs of mineral deficiency. The results of these experiments confirms the hypothesis that selective mineral supplementation – i.e. supplementation of the mineral element(s) deficient – was correct and results in expressive reduction of the cost with the mineral supplementation for beef cattle.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Malafaia P., Peixoto P.V., Gonçalves J.C.S., Moreira A.L., Costa D.P.B. & Correa W.S. 2004. [Daily weight gain and costs of beef cattle receiving two types of mineral supple-ments.] Ganho de peso e custos em bovinos de corte submetidos a dois tipos de suplementos minerais. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3):160-164. Depto Nutrição Animal e Pastagem, Instituto de Zootecnia, UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23851-970, Brazil. E-mail: malafaia1@ig.com.br The daily weight gain and economic aspects of beef cattle raised on tropical pastures receiving two types of mineral supplements were evaluated during 112-183 days during the wet season in 4 herds. On each farm the animals were divided into two groups. For one group a commercial mineral mixture was used, and to the other group a selective mineral mixture containing only Na, P, Cu and Co was offered. The cattle were weighed every 30 days, and the mineral supplement intake was measured monthly. The daily weight gain of the animals receiving the selective mineral mixture was greater in three farms. Only on the second farm the group receiving the commercial mineral mixture had a superior daily weight gain. The daily intake of the selective mineral mixture was lower in all groups and was attributed to the high amount of NaCl in these mixtures. The selective mineral supplementation was 3 up to 7 times more economic than the conventional supplementation with a “complete” mineral mix. Throughout the experimental period the animals did not show any direct or indirect clinical signs of mineral deficiency. The results of these experiments confirms the hypothesis that selective mineral supplementation – i.e. supplementation of the mineral element(s) deficient – was correct and results in expressive reduction of the cost with the mineral supplementation for beef cattle.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV