Resultado da pesquisa (13)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Infectious diseases

#1 - Epidemiological and pathological aspects of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in 114 horses in Southern Brazil

Abstract in English:

Equine colic is one of the most common cause of death in horses, but few studies have investigated specifically the conditions at the necropsy. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and pathological features of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in horses. A retrospective study was conducted in search of cases of these diseases affecting horses from 2005 to 2017. During this period, 114 horses died of noninfectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and the main causes were: primary gastric dilation (27/114), volvulus (27/114), enterolithiasis (20/114), rectal (colonic) perforation (15/114), gastric or cecocolonic impaction (10/114), incarcerations (6/114), intussusception (4/114), and others (5/114). Mixed breeds horses (56/114) and males (69/114) were mostly affected. The horses had a median and mean age of 10 and 10.9-years old, respectively. Primary gastric dilation was characterized by distension of the stomach by moderate to large amounts of content, which in 21 cases caused tearing of the stomach wall at the greater curvature (peritonitis), and the main predisposing factor was alimentary overload (17/27). Intestinal volvulus occurred within the small intestine (14 cases) and within the large intestines (13 cases). Grossly, there was intestinal ischemia with reddened to deep-black serosa and diffusely red mucosae. Enterolithiasis caused partial or complete obstruction of the right dorsal colon (9/20), transverse colon (4/20), small colon and right dorsal colon (3/20), rectum and right dorsal colon (2/20), and small colon (2/20). Viscera perforation and peritonitis occurred in 11 cases. Rectal (colonic) perforation involved the rectum (10/15), rectum/small colon (4/15), and the small colon (1/15). It was characterized by a focally extensive transmural tearing, associated with reddened borders, and retroperitoneal to diffuse peritonitis. Palpation related iatrogenic injuries (11/15) were the main cause. Impactions affected the large colon (7/10), the cecum (2/10), and the stomach (1/10). Incarcerations consisted of inguinoscrotal hernias (2/6), small intestine entrapment by a mesenteric failure (2/6), diaphragmatic hernia, and umbilical eventration. Grossly, the organs were constricted by a hernial ring, with intestinal ischemia and reddened to dark-red serosa. Predisposing factors included previous surgeries (2/6) and patent inguinal ring (1/6). Intussusception involved the small intestine (3/4) and ileocecum (1/4). Foals with lack of colostrum intake and concomitant pneumonia was a characteristic presentation (3/4). Grossly, the intussusceptum slipped into intussuscipiens, with diffuse deep black-red discoloration. Other causes included large colon displacement (2/5), extrinsic and intrinsic obstruction of the small intestine (2/5), and an intestinal adenocarcinoma. Noninfectious gastrointestinal diseases are major causes of death in horses. Epidemiological and gross features of the conditions should be accounted to obtain a final diagnosis of the cause of the colic.

Abstract in Portuguese:

A cólica em equinos é considerada como a principal causa de morte de cavalos, porém poucos estudos têm investigado especificamente as condições envolvidas através da necropsia. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal de equinos. Foi conduzido um estudo retrospectivo em busca de casos dessas doenças envolvendo cavalos de 2005 a 2017. Durante esse período, 114 equinos morreram devido a doenças não infecciosas do trato gastrointestinal, e as principais causas foram: dilatação gástrica (27/114), vólvulos (27/114), enterolitíase (20/114), ruptura retal (colônica) (15/114), compactação gástrica ou cecocolônica (10/114), encarceramentos (6/114), intussuscepções (4/114), e outros (5/114). Animais sem raça definida (56/114) e machos (69/114) foram mais afetados. Os equinos apresentavam uma média e mediana de idade de 10 e 10,9 anos, respectivamente. A dilatação gástrica primária era caracterizada por distensão do estômago por moderada a grande quantidade de conteúdo, que em 21 casos provocava ruptura da parede gástrica na curvatura maior (peritonite), e o principal fator predisponente foi sobrecarga alimentar (17/27). Vólvulo intestinal ocorreu no intestino delgado e no intestino grosso (14 e 13 casos, respectivamente). Macroscopicamente, havia isquemia intestinal com serosa avermelhada a enegrecida e mucosa difusamente avermelhada. A enterolitíase causou obstrução parcial ou completa do cólon dorsal direito (9/20), cólon transverso (4/20), cólon menor e cólon dorsal direito (3/20), cólon menor (2/20), e reto e cólon maior direito (2/20). Perfuração de vísceras e peritonite foram observadas em 11 casos. A ruptura retal (colônica) envolveu o reto (10/15), reto/cólon menor (4/15) e cólon menor (1/15). Essa era caracterizada por ruptura transmural focalmente extensa, com bordos avermelhados e peritonite retroperitoneal a difusa. Traumas relacionados à palpação (11/15) foram a principal causa. Compactações afetaram o cólon maior (7/10), ceco (2/10) e estômago (1/10). Encarceramentos consistiram em hérnias inguinoescrotais (2/6), encarceramento de alças intestinais por falha no mesentério (2/6), hérnia diafragmática e eventração umbilical. Macroscopicamente, os órgãos estavam constritos por um anel hernial, com isquemia intestinal e serosa avermelhada a vermelho-escura. Fatores predisponentes incluíram cirurgias prévias (2/6) e anel inguinal patente (1/6). Intussuscepções envolveram o intestino delgado (3/4) e íleoceco (1/4). A apresentação característica foi em potros com falta de colostro e concomitante pneumonia. Macroscopicamente, o intussuscepto deslizava em direção ao intussuscepiente, exibindo coloração vermelho-enegrecida difusa. Outras causas incluíram deslocamento de cólon maior (2/5), obstrução extrínseca e intrínseca do intestino delgado (2/5), e um caso de adenocarcinoma intestinal. Doenças não infecciosas são importantes causas de morte em equinos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos e macroscópicos das condições devem ser considerados para o que o diagnóstico final da causa da cólica seja obtido.


#2 - Infectious diseases dynamics in growing/finishing pigs in Southern Brazil (2005-2016)

Abstract in English:

This study aimed to determine the frequency and distribution of infectious diseases diagnosed through necropsy examination and histopathological analysis in growing/finishing pigs along 12 years (2005-2016) in Southern Brazil. We evaluated 1906 anatomopathological exams of pigs at growing/finishing phases, of which the infectious diseases corresponded to 75.6% of the cases (1,441/1,906). Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections were the most frequent, accounting for 51.3% of the cases (739/1,441) with a higher frequency from 2005 to 2007, characterizing an epidemic distribution, with a gradual decline after 2008. Infectious diseases affecting the respiratory system were the second major cause with 30.1% of the cases. Among these, necrotizing bronchiolitis caused by swine Influenza (15.1%, 218/1,441) and bacterial pneumonia (15%, 216/1,441) were the main conditions. Influenza was mostly diagnosed from 2010 to 2013, accounting for 43.1% (167/387) of the cases. After this period, both respiratory infectious diseases were endemic. Digestive system infectious diseases accounted for 10.5% of the diagnoses (151/1,441), with the following main conditions: Salmonella spp. enterocolitis (43.7%, 66/151), Lawsonia spp. proliferative enteropathy (41.7%, 63/151), and Brachyspira spp. colitis (14.6%, 22/151). The latter had a higher incidence from 2012 to 2014 with all cases detected in this period. Polyserositis and bacterial meningitis represented, respectively, 5.8% (84/1,441) and 2.3% (33/1,441) of the cases diagnosed, with a constant endemic character.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O objetivo deste estudo consistiu em determinar a frequência e a distribuição das doenças infecciosas diagnosticadas através de exame de necropsia e análise histopatológica em suínos nas fases de crescimento/terminação ao longo de 12 anos (2005-2016) no sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados 1906 laudos anatomopatológicos de suínos nas fases de crescimento/terminação, dos quais as doenças infecciosas corresponderam a 75,6% (1441/1906) do total. As infecções por circovírus suíno tipo 2 (PCV2) foram as mais frequentes, contabilizando 51,3% (739/1441) dos casos, com uma alta frequência de 2005 a 2007 caracterizando uma distribuição epidêmica neste período, e um declínio gradual após o ano de 2008. A segunda principal causa incluiu as doenças infecciosas que afetam o sistema respiratório (30,1% dos casos). Dentre essas, destacaram-se a influenza suína (15,1%; 218/1441) e pneumonias bacterianas (15%; 216/1441). O diagnóstico de influenza apresentou uma frequência elevada de 2010 a 2013, totalizando 43,1% (167/387) dos casos. Após este período, ambas doenças infecciosas respiratórias exibiram caráter endêmico. As doenças infecciosas do sistema digestório totalizaram 10,5% (151/1441) dos diagnósticos, com as seguintes principais condições: enterocolite por Salmonella spp. (43,7%; 66/151), enteropatia proliferativa por Lawsonia spp. (41,7%; 63/151) e colite por Brachyspira spp. (14,6%; 22/151). A colite por Brachyspira spp. apresentou uma alta incidência de 2012 a 2014 com todos os casos detectados no período. As polisserosites e meningites bacterianas representaram 5,8% (84/1441) e 2,3% (33/1441) dos casos diagnosticados, respectivamente, com um caráter endêmico constante


#3 - Clinical and pathological findings of Rhodococcus equi infection in foals

Abstract in English:

Infection by Rhodococcus equi is considered one of the major health concerns for foals worldwide. In order to better understand the disease’s clinical and pathological features, we studied twenty cases of natural infection by R. equi in foals. These cases are characterized according to their clinical and pathological findings and immunohistochemical aspects. Necropsy, histologic examination, bacterial culture, R. equi and Pneumocystis spp. immunohistochemistry were performed. The foals had a mean age of 60 days and presented respiratory signs (11/20), hyperthermia (10/20), articular swelling (6/20), prostration (4/20), locomotor impairment (3/20) and diarrhea (3/20), among others. The main lesions were of pyogranulomatous pneumonia, seen in 19 foals, accompanied or not by pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis (10/20) and pyogranulomatous and ulcerative enterocolitis (5/20). Pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was seen in 3 foals, one of which did not have pulmonary involvement. There was lymphoplasmacytic (4/20), lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic (1/20) or pyogranulomatous arthritis (1/20), affecting multiple or singular joints. Immunohistochemistry revealed to be a valuable tool for the detection of R. equi, confirming the diagnosis in all cases. Furthermore, pulmonary immunostaining for Pneumocystis spp. demonstrates that a coinfection with R. equi and this fungal agent is a common event in foals, seen in 13 cases.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Infecção por Rhodococcus equi é considerado um dos maiores problemas sanitários para potros em todo o mundo. Para melhor compreender a apresentação clínica e patológica da enfermidade, foram avaliados vinte casos de infecção natural por R. equi em potros. Os casos são caracterizados de acordo com seus achados clínicos e patológicos e aspectos imuno-histoquímicos. Foram realizados exames de necropsia, histologia, bacteriologia e imuno-histoquímica para R. equi e Pneumocystis spp. Os potros tinham idade media de 60 dias e apresentaram sinais respiratórios (11/20), hipertermia (10/20), aumento de volume articular (6/20), prostração (4/20), distúrbios locomotores (3/20) e diarreia (3/20), entre outros. As lesões mais importantes eram pneumonia piogranulomatosa, vista em 19 potros, acompanhada ou não por linfadenite piogranulomatosa (10/20) e enterocolite ulcerativa (5/20). Osteomielite piogranulomatosa foi constatada em três potros, um dos quais não apresentava envolvimento pulmonar. Artrites afetando uma ou múltiplas articulações eram caracterizadas por infiltrado linfoplasmocítico (4/20), linfoplasmocítico e neutrofílico (1/20) e piogranulomatoso (1/20). A imuno‑histoquímica demonstrou ser uma ferramenta valiosa na detecção de R. equi, permitindo confirmar o diagnóstico em todos os casos avaliados. Além disso, a imuno-histoquímica para Pneumocystis spp. demonstra que a coinfecção por R. equi e o agente fúngico é um evento frequente em potros, constatado em 13 casos.


#4 - Causes of death and euthanasia in domestic cats in the Santa Catarina plateau (1995-2015)

Abstract in English:

Knowledge about the causes of death in felines constitutes important information to owners, veterinarians, and researchers, aiming at reducing the number of deaths in this species. In order to determine the main causes of death or euthanasia in cats in the Santa Catarina plateau, data from 1995 to 2015 available in necropsy files of the Laboratory of Animal Pathology (LAPA) of the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC) were collected and evaluated. In that period, 1,728 cats were necropsied, mainly males (46.12%) and adults (50.11%). The mean ages at death for kittens, adults, and elderly were 5.07 months, 3.9 years, and 13.9 years, respectively. Of the 1,728 necropsy reports assessed, the cause of death was identified in 1,184 (68.52%) cases. The main cause of death was associated with infectious diseases (15.8%), with prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis (29.76%), followed by neoplasms (11.98%) with lymphoma (44.93%) and leukemia (16.91%) as the most common, and traumas (11.81%) mainly caused by motor vehicle accidents. These results show the need for owner awareness, as well as establishment of prophylaxis and vaccination programs, aimed at reducing the number of deaths and thus increasing life expectancy in the feline population.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O conhecimento a respeito da causa mortis em felinos é importante para que se construa um informativo para proprietários, médicos veterinários e pesquisadores, objetivando a redução no número de mortes na espécie. Com o intuito de determinar as principais causas de morte ou eutanásia em felinos domésticos no planalto catarinense foram avaliados os arquivos de registro das necropsias do período de 1995 a 2015 do Laboratório de Patologia Animal da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. No período, foram necropsiados 1.728 felinos, principalmente machos (46,12%), adultos (50,11%). A idade média para filhotes foi de 5,07 meses, enquanto para adultos foi 3,9 anos e para idosos 13,9 anos. Das 1.728 necropsias de felinos, a enfermidade que levou o animal a morte foi determinada em 1.184 (68,52%). As doenças infecciosas foram a principal causa de morte (15,8%), dentre as quais a peritonite infecciosa felina (29,76%) foi a mais frequente; seguida das neoplasias (11,98%), sendo o linfoma (44,93%) e a leucemia (16,91%), as mais comuns; e dos traumatismos (11,81%), principalmente atropelamentos por veículos automotivos. Estes resultados refletem a necessidade da conscientização dos proprietários, bem como da instituição de programas de profilaxia e vacinação, visando a redução de mortes e o aumento na expectativa de vida para a população felina.


#5 - Causes of death in goats in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: analysis of 322 cases (2000-2016)

Abstract in English:

The diagnosis of the cause of death in goats submitted to necropsy from January 2000 to December 2016 by Setor de Patologia Veterinária from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul was reviewed. Epidemiological features, such as the breed, sex and age, in addition to the clinical and pathological features were evaluated. During this period, 322 goats were necropsied, in which a conclusive diagnosis was obtained in 290 (90%) goats. Goats that were part of other experimental study were excluded from this study. From these 290 cases, 167 (57.6%) corresponded to diseases of infectious origin and toxinfectious diseases, while 123 (42.4%) were classified as non-infectious conditions. Infectious diseases included 55 cases of bacterial origin, 59 cases with parasitary involvement, 14 cases of viral origin, and 39 toxinfectious cases. Non-infectious conditions were grouped into metabolic diseases (44 cases), plants or chemical substances poisoning (36), mineral and nutritional deficiencies (20), and neoplasms and developmental disorders (5). In the remaining 18 cases, a conclusive diagnosis was obtained, however the conditions did not fit into those criteria and were classified as “others”. The age range of the goats in this study was from 1 day-old to 10 years-old. Most of the goats were females (201), while 121 were males. Affected breeds included Boer, Saanen, Anglo-Nubian, Toggenburg and mixed breeds. Parasitic, infectious and toxin-infectious diseases were the main cause of deaths, especially haemonchosis, pleuropneumonia, eimeriosis and enterotoxemia. Among the non-infectious conditions, metabolic disorders, especially rumen acidosis, pregnancy toxemia and urolithiasis, were directly related to the management employed in the property. Plant poisoning diagnosis was also highlighted with locally present plants, such as Sida carpinifolia, as the most important.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Foram revisadas as causas de morte de caprinos submetidos ao exame de necropsia no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2016 pelo Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Avaliaram-se os dados epidemiológicos relacionados à raça, sexo e idade, assim como as alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas. Durante esse período, foram recebidos para necropsia 322 caprinos, nos quais em 290 casos (90%) foi obtido o diagnóstico conclusivo. Caprinos destinados à experimentação animal foram excluídos deste estudo. Do total de 290 casos, 167 (57,6%) corresponderam a enfermidades de origem infecciosa e toxi-infecciosa, enquanto 123 (42,4%) em causas não infecciosas. Entre as doenças infecciosas foram contabilizados 55 casos de origem bacteriana, 59 casos com envolvimento parasitário, 14 casos de origem viral, e 39 casos toxi-infecciosos. As doenças de caráter não infeccioso foram agrupadas em doenças metabólicas (44 casos), intoxicações por plantas ou substâncias tóxicas (36), deficiências minerais e nutricionais (20), neoplasias e distúrbios no desenvolvimento (5). Dezoito casos com diagnóstico conclusivo, mas que não se enquadravam nestas classificações foram agrupadas como “outros”. A faixa etária dos caprinos neste estudo variou de um dia a 10 anos. A maior parte dos animais eram fêmeas (201), enquanto 121 eram machos. As raças dos caprinos necropsiados neste período incluíram Boer, Saanen, Anglo-Nubiano, Toggenburg e sem raça definida (SRD). As enfermidades de origem parasitárias, infecciosas e toxi-infecciosas, especialmente hemoncose, eimeriose, pleuropneumonias e a enterotoxemia acarretaram o maior número de mortes. Das causas não infecciosas, distúrbios metabólicos, como acidose lática ruminal, toxemia da prenhez e urolitíase, estiveram diretamente relacionadas com o manejo empregado nas propriedades. Evidenciou-se também a importância do diagnóstico de intoxicações por plantas relevantes da região, como Sida carpinifolia.


#6 - Suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system in domestic ruminants, 37(8):820-828

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Konradt G., Bassuino D.M., Prates K.S., Bianchi M.V., Snel G.G.M., Sonne L., Driemeier D. & Pavarini S.P. 2017. Suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system in domestic ruminants. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(8):820-828. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: saulo.pavarini@ufrgs.br This study describes suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in domestic ruminants of southern Brazil. Reports from 3.274 cattle, 596 sheep and 391 goats were reviewed, of which 219 cattle, 21 sheep and 7 goats were diagnosed with central nervous system inflammatory diseases. Suppurative infectious diseases of the CNS corresponded to 54 cases (28 cattle, 19 sheep and 7 goats). The conditions observed consisted of listerial meningoencephalitis (8 sheep, 5 goats and 4 cattle), suppurative leptomeningitis and meningoencephalitis (14 cattle, 2 goats and 1 sheep), cerebral (6 cattle and 2 sheep), and spinal cord (7 sheep) abscesses, and basilar empyema (4 cattle and 1 sheep). Bacterial culture identified Listeria monocytogenes (9/54 cases), Escherichia coli (7/54 cases), Trueperella pyogenes (6/54 cases) and Proteus mirabilis (1/54 cases). All cases diagnosed as listeriosis through histopathology yielded positive immunostaining on immunohistochemistry, while 12/17 of the cases of suppurative leptomeningitis and meningoencephalitis presented positive immunostaining for Escherichia coli. Meningoencephalitis by L. monocytogenes was the main neurological disease in sheep and goats, followed by spinal cord abscesses in sheep. In cattle, leptomeningitis and suppurative meningoencephalitis was the most frequent neurological disease for the species, and E. coli was the main cause of these lesions. Basilar empyema, mainly diagnosed in cattle, is related to traumatic injuries, mainly in the nasal cavity, and the main etiologic agent was T. pyogenes.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Konradt G., Bassuino D.M., Prates K.S., Bianchi M.V., Snel G.G.M., Sonne L., Driemeier D. & Pavarini S.P. 2017. Suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system in domestic ruminants. [Doenças infecciosas supurativas do sistema nervoso central de ruminantes domésticos.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(8):820-828. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: saulo.pavarini@ufrgs.br Neste trabalho são descritas as doenças neurológicas infecciosas supurativas de ruminantes domésticos na Região Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados laudos de 3.274 bovinos, 596 ovinos e 391 caprinos, dos quais 219 bovinos, 21 ovinos e sete caprinos foram diagnosticados como doenças inflamatórias no sistema nervoso central. As doenças neurológicas infecciosas supurativas corresponderam a 54 casos (28 bovinos, 19 ovinos e sete caprinos). As enfermidades observadas foram meningoencefalite por Listeria monocytogenes (oito ovinos, cinco caprinos e quatro bovinos), leptomeningite e meningoencefalite supurativa (14 bovinos, dois caprinos e um ovino), abscessos cerebrais (seis bovinos e dois ovinos) e medulares (sete ovinos); e empiema basilar (quatro bovinos e um ovino). Através do isolamento bacteriano foram identificados: L. monocytogenes (9/54 casos), Echerichia coli (7/54 casos), Trueperella pyogenes (6/54 casos) e Proteus mirabilis (1/54 casos). Todos os casos diagnosticados como listeriose por histologia foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para L. monocytogenes, e 12/17 casos de leptomeningite e meningoencefalite supurativa foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para E. coli. A meningoencefalite por L. monocytogenes representou a principal enfermidade neurológica em ovinos e caprinos, seguido dos abscessos medulares em ovinos. A leptomeningite e meningoencefalite supurativa foi a doença neurológica supurativa mais frequente em bovinos e o principal agente causador da lesão foi E. coli. O empiema basilar, frequentemente, diagnosticado em bovinos, foi relacionado com lesões traumáticas, principalmente, de cavidade nasal e o principal agente causador foi T. pyogenes.


#7 - Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from septic arthritis in horses, 37(4):325-330

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Motta R.G., Martins L.S.A., Motta I.G., Guerra S.T., De Paula C.L., Bolanos C.A.D., Silva R.C. & Ribeiro M.G. 2017. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from septic arthritis in horses. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(4):325-330. Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Cx. Postal 560, Botucatu, SP 18618-681, Brazil. E-mail: rgmottafmvz@gmail.com Septic arthritis is a debilitating joint infectious disease of equines that requires early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention to prevent degenerative effects on the articular cartilage, as well as loss of athletic ability and work performance of the animals. Few studies have investigated the etiological complexity of this disease, as well as multidrug resistance of isolates. In this study, 60 horses with arthritis had synovial fluid samples aseptically collected, and tested by microbiological culture and in vitro susceptibility test (disk diffusion) using nine antimicrobials belonging to six different pharmacological groups. Bacteria were isolated in 45 (75.0%) samples, as follows: Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (11=18.3%), Escherichia coli (9=15.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6=10.0%), Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (5=8.3%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2=3.3%), Proteus vulgaris (2=3.3%), Trueperella pyogenes (2=3.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2=3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1=1.7%), Rhodococcus equi (1=1.7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1=1.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1=1.7%), Nocardia asteroides (1=1.7%), and Enterobacter cloacae (1=1.7%). Ceftiofur was the most effective drug (>70% efficacy) against the pathogens in the disk diffusion test. In contrast, high resistance rate (>70% resistance) was observed to penicillin (42.2%), enrofloxacin (33.3%), and amikacin (31.2%). Eleven (24.4%) isolates were resistant to three or more different pharmacological groups and were considered multidrug resistant strains. The present study emphasizes the etiological complexity of equine septic arthritis, and highlights the need to institute treatment based on the in vitro susceptibility pattern, due to the multidrug resistance of isolates. According to the available literature, this is the first report in Brazil on the investigation of the etiology. of the septic arthritis in a great number of horses associated with multidrug resistance of the isolates.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Motta R.G., Martins L.S.A., Motta I.G., Guerra S.T., De Paula C.L., Bolanos C.A.D., Silva R.C. & Ribeiro M.G. 2017. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from septic arthritis in horses. [Bactérias multirresistentes isoladas de artrite séptica equina.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(4):325-330. Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Cx. Postal 560, Botucatu, SP 18618-681, Brazil. E-mail: rgmottafmvz@gmail.com Artrite séptica é uma artropatia infecciosa debilitante de equinos, que requer diagnóstico precoce e intervenção terapêutica imediata, com intuito de evitar a degeneração de a cartilagem articular e a perda da capacidade atlética e de trabalho dos animais. Poucos estudos têm investigado a complexidade etiológica da afecção, bem como a presença de multirresistência dos isolados aos antimicrobianos. Foram investigados 60 equinos portadores de artrite, submetidos à colheita asséptica de líquido sinovial para a realização de cultivo microbiológico e teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro (difusão com discos) com nove antimicrobianos pertencentes a seis diferentes grupos farmacológicos. Foi obtido isolamento microbiano em 45 (75,0%) amostras, como segue: Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (11=18,3%), Escherichia coli (9=15,0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6=10,0%), Streptococcus zooepidemicus (5=8,3%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2=3,3%), Proteus vulgaris (2=3,3%), Trueperella pyogenes (2=3,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2=3,3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1=1,7%), Rhodococcus equi (1=1,7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1=1,7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1=1,7%), Nocardia asteroides (1=1,7%) e Enterobacter cloacae (1=1,7%). Ceftiofur foi o antimicrobiano mais efetivo (>70% eficácia) in vitro diante dos patógenos. Em contraste, alta resistência dos isolados (>70% de resistência) foi observada para penicilina (42,2%), enrofloxacino (33,3%) e amicacina (31,2%). Onze (24,4%) isolados foram resistentes a três ou mais diferentes grupamentos de fármacos e considerados com resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos. O presente estudo enaltece a complexidade etiológica envolvida na artrite séptica em equinos e ressalta a necessidade de instituir o tratamento dos animais com respaldo de testes de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro em virtude da resistência múltipla dos isolados. De acordo com a literatura consultada, esta é a primeira descrição no país da etiologia da artrite séptica em grande número de equinos associada a multirresistência dos isolados aos fármacos testados.


#8 - Padronização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para raiva em amostras de tecido do sistema nervoso central de bovinos fixadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina, p.627-632

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Pedroso P.M.O., Pescador C.A., Bandarra P.M., Raymundo D.L., Borba M.R., Wouters F., Bezerra Jr P.S. & Driemeier D. 2008. [Standardization of immunohistochemistry technique for detection of rabies virus in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from central nervous system of cattle.] Padronização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para raiva em amostras de tecido do sistema nervoso central de bovinos fixadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(12):627-632. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br For standardization of the rabies immunohistochemistry technique, five samples of central nervous system (CNS) of cattle naturally infected with rabies virus were examined. One polyclonal antibody and two monoclonal antibodies were used. The following reagents were evaluated for antigen retrieval: XIV protease, proteinase K and citrate buffer (pH 6.0) boiling at 100°C during 15 minutes in bain-marie. Detection of rabic antigen was possible with the three antibodies tested. The polyclonal antibody was superior to the monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating good results with the three antigen retrieval protocols. The highest intensity staining was obtained with the citrate buffer and heat. The immunohistochemistry technique demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in the cytoplasm of neurons, in form of aggregates or with round or oval shape. The antigens were found as single or multiples inclusion bodies in the neurons. Immunohistochemistry is a fast method that can be used in routine procedures in cases where rabies is suspected, especially when the brain is submitted to the laboratory as formalin-fixed fragments or when samples could not be immediately shipped. The technique is also useful for retrospective studies.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Pedroso P.M.O., Pescador C.A., Bandarra P.M., Raymundo D.L., Borba M.R., Wouters F., Bezerra Jr P.S. & Driemeier D. 2008. [Standardization of immunohistochemistry technique for detection of rabies virus in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from central nervous system of cattle.] Padronização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para raiva em amostras de tecido do sistema nervoso central de bovinos fixadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(12):627-632. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br For standardization of the rabies immunohistochemistry technique, five samples of central nervous system (CNS) of cattle naturally infected with rabies virus were examined. One polyclonal antibody and two monoclonal antibodies were used. The following reagents were evaluated for antigen retrieval: XIV protease, proteinase K and citrate buffer (pH 6.0) boiling at 100°C during 15 minutes in bain-marie. Detection of rabic antigen was possible with the three antibodies tested. The polyclonal antibody was superior to the monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating good results with the three antigen retrieval protocols. The highest intensity staining was obtained with the citrate buffer and heat. The immunohistochemistry technique demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in the cytoplasm of neurons, in form of aggregates or with round or oval shape. The antigens were found as single or multiples inclusion bodies in the neurons. Immunohistochemistry is a fast method that can be used in routine procedures in cases where rabies is suspected, especially when the brain is submitted to the laboratory as formalin-fixed fragments or when samples could not be immediately shipped. The technique is also useful for retrospective studies.


#9 - Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos, p.325-332

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Inkelmann M.A., Rozza D.B., Fighera R.A., Kommers G.D., Graça D.L., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Infectious canine hepatitis: 62 cases.] Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(8):325-332. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Necropsy reports from 5,361 dogs necropsied over a 43-year period (1964-2006) were reviewed in search for cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH). Sixty two (1.2%) cases of the disease were found. Most of the 62 affected dogs (91.9%,) were 2-year-old or less. Clinical signs were recorded in the necropsy files of 45 ICH affected dogs and included anorexia (55.6%), apathy (35.6%), diarrhea (35.6%) (often with blood [43,8%]), neurological signs (33.3%), vomiting (26.7%), petechiae and echymosis in the mucous membranes and/or skin (24.4%), hypothermia (20.0%), abdominal pain (15.6%), icterus (13.3%), enlargement and congestion of the tonsils (11.1%), fever (11.1%) and ascites (6.7%). The clinical courses lasted from few hours to 15 days. The most frequent necropsy findings included hepatic changes (87.1%), edematous, congested and hemorrhagic lymph nodes (51.6%), bloodstained fluid, clear fluid or whole blood in the abdominal cavity (35.5%), and petechial or paint-brush hemorrhages over the pleural (27.4%) and gastrointestinal (24.2%) serosal surfaces. In 12.9% of the cases there was a granularity to the intestinal serosa. Hemorrhages in the leptomeninges and in the substance of the brain were observed in 9.7% of the cases. Hepatic gross changes included moderately enlarged and more friable livers with marked lobular pattern, congestion and multifocal pale or hemorrhagic foci of necrosis. Films and strands of fibrin covered the hepatic surface in 20.4% of the cases and in 27.8% of the cases the gall bladder was thickened by edema. Zonal or randomly distributed multifocal hepatic necrosis (93.5%) associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies were the most consistent microscopic findings. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the liver in every case and their detection was the criterium for confirmation of the diagnosis. The most significant microscopic extra-hepatic lesions included hemorrhages and intranuclear inclusion bodies in endothelial and reticuloendothelial cells of the renal glomeruli (50.0%) lymph nodes (47.8%), brain (27.8%), tonsils (25.0%) and spleen (10.0%).

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Inkelmann M.A., Rozza D.B., Fighera R.A., Kommers G.D., Graça D.L., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Infectious canine hepatitis: 62 cases.] Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(8):325-332. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Necropsy reports from 5,361 dogs necropsied over a 43-year period (1964-2006) were reviewed in search for cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH). Sixty two (1.2%) cases of the disease were found. Most of the 62 affected dogs (91.9%,) were 2-year-old or less. Clinical signs were recorded in the necropsy files of 45 ICH affected dogs and included anorexia (55.6%), apathy (35.6%), diarrhea (35.6%) (often with blood [43,8%]), neurological signs (33.3%), vomiting (26.7%), petechiae and echymosis in the mucous membranes and/or skin (24.4%), hypothermia (20.0%), abdominal pain (15.6%), icterus (13.3%), enlargement and congestion of the tonsils (11.1%), fever (11.1%) and ascites (6.7%). The clinical courses lasted from few hours to 15 days. The most frequent necropsy findings included hepatic changes (87.1%), edematous, congested and hemorrhagic lymph nodes (51.6%), bloodstained fluid, clear fluid or whole blood in the abdominal cavity (35.5%), and petechial or paint-brush hemorrhages over the pleural (27.4%) and gastrointestinal (24.2%) serosal surfaces. In 12.9% of the cases there was a granularity to the intestinal serosa. Hemorrhages in the leptomeninges and in the substance of the brain were observed in 9.7% of the cases. Hepatic gross changes included moderately enlarged and more friable livers with marked lobular pattern, congestion and multifocal pale or hemorrhagic foci of necrosis. Films and strands of fibrin covered the hepatic surface in 20.4% of the cases and in 27.8% of the cases the gall bladder was thickened by edema. Zonal or randomly distributed multifocal hepatic necrosis (93.5%) associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies were the most consistent microscopic findings. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the liver in every case and their detection was the criterium for confirmation of the diagnosis. The most significant microscopic extra-hepatic lesions included hemorrhages and intranuclear inclusion bodies in endothelial and reticuloendothelial cells of the renal glomeruli (50.0%) lymph nodes (47.8%), brain (27.8%), tonsils (25.0%) and spleen (10.0%).


#10 - Aspectos clinicopatológicos de 620 casos neurológicos de cinomose em cães, 215-220

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Silva M.C., Fighera R.A., Brum J.S., Graça D.L., Kommers G.D., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Clinicopathological features in 620 neurological cases of canine distemper.] Aspectos clinicopatológicos de 620 casos neurológicos de cinomose em cães. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(5):215-220. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br The files of 5,361 necropsies performed in dogs in the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria during 1965-2006 were reviewed in search of cases of canine distemper. Six hundred and eighty three cases (12.7%) of the disease were found, 620 of which had neurological signs. From those 620, the following data on each case were retrieved: age, clinical signs, histopathology and concomitance or not of another disease. Age groups were classified as puppies (up to 1 year of age), adults (from 1 to 9 years) and aged (from 10 years on). In 565 out of the 620 (91.1%) neurological cases of canine distemper, histopathological brain changes were observed and in 554 of those 565 the age was registered in the files with following age group distribution: 45.9% of puppies, 51.4% of adults, and 2.7% of aged dogs. Neurological clinical signs encompassed a large spectrum of motor, postural and behavioral disturbances which could occur together or individually. Most frequent clinical signs were myoclonus (38.4%), motor incoordination (25.0%), seizures (18.5%), and paraplegia (13.4%). In 98.4% of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes in the brain demyelination, non-suppurative encephalitis or a combination of these two were found. Intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in different brain cells of 343 of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes. In 170 (49.6%) the cellular type bearing the inclusions was not mentioned in the file and in the remaining cases the inclusions were seen in astrocytes (94.8% of the cases), neurons (3.5%), oligodendrocytes (1.1%), and ependyma cells (0.6%). Taking in consideration the type of lesions and the age groups, cases with combined demyelination and non-suppurative encephalitis occurred in 40.0% of the puppies, 51.2% of the adult dogs and 72.7% of the aged dogs. Demyelination alone occurred in 48.4% of the puppies, 41.3% of the adults and in 35.7% of the aged dogs. Non-suppurative encephalitis alone occurred 11.6% of the puppies, 7.5% of the adults and in 7.1% of the aged dogs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Silva M.C., Fighera R.A., Brum J.S., Graça D.L., Kommers G.D., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Clinicopathological features in 620 neurological cases of canine distemper.] Aspectos clinicopatológicos de 620 casos neurológicos de cinomose em cães. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(5):215-220. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br The files of 5,361 necropsies performed in dogs in the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria during 1965-2006 were reviewed in search of cases of canine distemper. Six hundred and eighty three cases (12.7%) of the disease were found, 620 of which had neurological signs. From those 620, the following data on each case were retrieved: age, clinical signs, histopathology and concomitance or not of another disease. Age groups were classified as puppies (up to 1 year of age), adults (from 1 to 9 years) and aged (from 10 years on). In 565 out of the 620 (91.1%) neurological cases of canine distemper, histopathological brain changes were observed and in 554 of those 565 the age was registered in the files with following age group distribution: 45.9% of puppies, 51.4% of adults, and 2.7% of aged dogs. Neurological clinical signs encompassed a large spectrum of motor, postural and behavioral disturbances which could occur together or individually. Most frequent clinical signs were myoclonus (38.4%), motor incoordination (25.0%), seizures (18.5%), and paraplegia (13.4%). In 98.4% of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes in the brain demyelination, non-suppurative encephalitis or a combination of these two were found. Intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in different brain cells of 343 of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes. In 170 (49.6%) the cellular type bearing the inclusions was not mentioned in the file and in the remaining cases the inclusions were seen in astrocytes (94.8% of the cases), neurons (3.5%), oligodendrocytes (1.1%), and ependyma cells (0.6%). Taking in consideration the type of lesions and the age groups, cases with combined demyelination and non-suppurative encephalitis occurred in 40.0% of the puppies, 51.2% of the adult dogs and 72.7% of the aged dogs. Demyelination alone occurred in 48.4% of the puppies, 41.3% of the adults and in 35.7% of the aged dogs. Non-suppurative encephalitis alone occurred 11.6% of the puppies, 7.5% of the adults and in 7.1% of the aged dogs.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV