Resultado da pesquisa (14)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Senecio brasiliensis

#1 - Seneciosis in cattle associated with ingestion of Senecio brasiliensis under different forms of consumption in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

Abstract in English:

This study identified the different forms of ingestion of Senecio brasiliensis in cattle, diagnosed by the Animal Pathology Laboratory at CAV-UDESC, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A retrospective evaluation from 1987 to 2016 showed that ingestion has occurred voluntarily due to the presence of the adult plant in native field and/or involuntary, due to the presence of the plant in hay and silage, provided in the trough together with other pastures or by contamination in grain residues. These different forms of ingestion demonstrate the importance of epidemiologic investigation in the diagnosis of seneciosis.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Esse estudo identificou as diferentes formas de ingestão de Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos, diagnosticados pelo laboratório de Patologia Animal do CAV-UDESC, no estado de Santa Catarina. Através de avaliação retrospectiva referente aos anos de 1987 a 2016, foi possível observar que as formas de ingestão da planta ocorreram de forma voluntária, pela presença da planta adulta em campo nativo, e/ou involuntária, pela presença da planta em fenos, silagens, fornecidas no cocho junto à outras pastagens ou por contaminação em resíduos de grãos. Essas diferentes formas de ingestão demonstram a importância da investigação epidemiológica no diagnóstico da seneciose.


#2 - Control of Senecio madagascariensis and Senecio brasiliensis by the use of sheep

Abstract in English:

In order to test different technics to control Senecio madagascariensis, three experiments were carried out. In the first, 40 sheep were placed in an area of four hectares for 90 days, with medium/high levels of infestation by the plant. The area after this period was desiccated with glyphosate (Roundup®) and seeded with Lotus corniculatus L., Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. by direct seeding. After eight months, sheep returned to the area for another 90 days. The second experiment was conducted with 10 sheep grazing for 30 days and 60 days’ rest, in three areas of 0.5 hectares each, with low, medium and high levels of S. madagascariensis infestation. The third experiment was carried out using drying, plowing and cultivated pasture (legumes and grasses) for three consecutive times without the use of sheep in an area infested by the plant. For the control of S. brasiliensis and other species of the genus, a fourth experiment was performed on a farm with history of intoxication by Senecio spp. in cattle. Eighty-six sheep were used in an area of 90 hectares for a year. The results of these experiments demonstrated that sheep consume and decrease the amount of S. madagascariensis in infested areas. Furthermore, it also indicated that S. madagascariensis to be efficiently controlled requires continuous grazing with at least four sheep per hectare. Practices as drying the pastures with herbicides, tillage and pasture planting can help eliminate the plant in long-term plan. In areas with S. brasiliensis infestation mowing can be an effective practice, mainly due to the high size of the plant, since it facilitates consumption by sheep.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Com o objetivo de testar diferentes formas de controle de Senecio madagascariensis foram realizados três experimentos. No primeiro, 40 ovinos foram colocados em uma área de quatro hectares por 90 dias, com infestação média e alta por S. madagascariensis. A área após este período foi dessecada com glifosato (Roundup®) e semeada com Lotus corniculatus L. (cornichão), Trifolium repens (trevo branco), Medicago sativa (alfafa) e Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (festuca) por plantio direto. Os ovinos, após oito meses, retornaram a área por mais 90 dias. O segundo experimento foi realizado com 10 ovinos em pastejo por 30 dias com 60 dias de descanso em três áreas de 0,5 hectares cada uma, com infestação baixa, média e alta por S. madagascariensis. O terceiro experimento foi realizado utilizando-se dessecação, aração e plantio de pastagens (leguminosas e gramíneas) por três vezes consecutivas, sem utilização de ovinos em uma área invadida pela planta. Para o controle de S. brasiliensis e outras espécies do gênero, um quarto experimento foi realizado em uma propriedade rural com histórico de intoxicação por Senecio spp. em bovinos. Foram utilizados 86 ovinos, que permaneceram em uma área de 90 hectares durante um ano. Os resultados destes experimentos demonstraram que os ovinos consomem S. madagascariensis e diminuem a quantidade de planta em áreas infestadas. Por outro lado, evidenciou-se também que S. madagascariensis para ser controlado de forma eficiente necessita de pastejo contínuo com pelo menos quatro ovinos por ha. As práticas como dessecação com herbicidas, aração e plantio de pastagem podem auxiliar na eliminação da planta a longo prazo. Em áreas de infestação por S. brasiliensis a roçagem pode ser uma prática eficiente, principalmente pelo porte alto da planta, pois facilita o consumo pelos ovinos.


#3 - Natural poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in horses, 37(4):313-318

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Panziera W., Bianchi R.M., Mazaro R.D., Giaretta P.R., Silva G.B., Silva D.R.P. & Fighera R.A. 2017. [Natural poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in horses.] Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(4):313-318. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: weldenpanziera@yahoo.com.br Poisoning due to plants of the genus Senecio is considered an important cause of death in livestock. Senecio brasiliensis is the most common species involved in spontaneous cases. This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of a natural outbreak of intoxication with Senecio brasiliensis affecting two out of eighteen horses in a farm. The cases occurred in the municipality of Sao Martinho da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. A large amount of Senecio brasiliensis in its sprouting stage was found in the fields where the horses used to be kept. A four-year-old, Crioulo mare and a five-month-old, male, Crioulo foal were affected. The clinical course was acute in the mare, comprising three days and chronic in the foal, lasting for two months. The main clinical signs in both animals included apathy, anorexia, weight loss, dehydration and neurological signs. Moreover, subcutaneous edema was noted in the ventral abdomen and the mucous membranes were icteric in the mare and pale in the foal. The serum biochemistry in the foal showed hypoalbuminemia (2.1g/dL), increased activity of the serum alkaline phosphatase (434 U/L) and gamma glutamyl transferase (119 U/L). In the hemogram, a mild normocytic normochromic anemia was noted in the foal (Hct: 30%; MCV: 39.5 fL; MCH: 15.3pg). Necropsy findings observed in both horses included an enlarged, dark red and firm liver with extensive areas of hemorrhage and enhanced lobular pattern on cut surface. Histologically, the liver showed variable degrees of fibrosis, coagulative necrosis, biliary ducts hyperplasia, megalocytosis and cholestasis. In the brain, the astrocytes in the cerebrum were degenerated and similar to Alzheimer type II astrocytes. The diagnosis in this outbreak was established based on the epidemiology, clinical picture, gross and histologic findings. It is noteworthy that the coagulative necrosis, minimal fibrosis, and biliary duct hyperplasia observed in the mare are characteristic of a subacute presentation. On the other hand, the fibrosis that was more prominent in the foal characterizes a chronic hepatopathy.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Panziera W., Bianchi R.M., Mazaro R.D., Giaretta P.R., Silva G.B., Silva D.R.P. & Fighera R.A. 2017. [Natural poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in horses.] Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(4):313-318. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: weldenpanziera@yahoo.com.br ntoxicações por plantas do gênero Senecio representam uma importante causa de morte em animais de produção, sendo Senecio brasiliensis a espécie mais envolvida nos casos de intoxicação espontânea. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos. Dois equinos, de um total de dezoito, foram afetados. Os casos ocorreram em uma propriedade rural no município de São Martinho da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Grande quantidade de exemplares de Senecio brasiliensis em estágio de brotação foi encontrada na área onde os equinos estavam. Os animais eram da raça Crioula, sendo uma égua com quatro anos e um potro com cinco meses. A égua apresentou evolução aguda da doença com duração de três dias e o potro evolução crônica de dois meses. As principais manifestações clínicas observadas em ambos os equinos incluíam apatia, anorexia, emagrecimento, desidratação e sinais neurológicos. Além disso, havia moderado edema subcutâneo na região ventral do abdômen e marcada icterícia nas mucosas ocular, oral e vulvar da égua e palidez das mucosas no potro. Na avaliação bioquímica do potro, havia acentuado aumento da atividade sérica da gamaglutamil transferase (119 U/L), aumento da fosfatase alcalina (434 U/L) e hipoalbuminemia (2,1g/dL). No hemograma do mesmo, observou-se leve anemia normocítica e normocrômica (30% de hematócrito; VCM: 39,5 fL; HCM: 15,3pg). As alterações presentes em ambas as necropsias foram observadas principalmente no fígado, que estava difusamente aumentado de tamanho, escuro e firme. Na superfície de corte, observaram-se acentuação do padrão lobular e hemorragia. Histologicamente, no fígado dos equinos, havia graus variados de necrose coagulativa, hemorragia, fibrose, proliferação de ductos biliares, hepatomegalocitose e bilestase. Nas diferentes seções analisadas do encéfalo, havia alterações astrocitárias restritas à substância cinzenta, predominantemente, no córtex telencefálico. Os astrócitos degenerados eram similares aos astrócitos de Alzheimer tipo II. O diagnóstico da intoxicação nesses casos foi baseado na epidemiologia, no quadro clínico, nas lesões de necropsia e nos achados histopatológicos. Cabe ressaltar que a necrose de coagulação e a discreta fibrose e proliferação de ductos biliares observados na égua, constituiu uma apresentação subaguda da intoxicação, enquanto que a fibrose, mais predominante no potro, caracterizou uma hepatopatia crônica.


#4 - Senecio brasiliensis poisoning in calves: pattern and evolution of hepatic lesions, 37(7):8-16

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Panziera W., Gonçalves M.A., Oliveira L.G.S., Lorenzett M.P., Reis M., Hammerschmitt M.E., Pavarini S.P. & Driemeier D. 2017. [Senecio brasiliensis poisoning in calves: pattern and evolution of hepatic lesions.] Intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis em bezerros: padrão e evolução de lesões hepáticas. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(7):8-16. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br Poisoning by Senecio spp. plants are an important cause of death in cattle in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is estimated that over 50% of deaths caused by toxic plants are due to the ingestion of Senecio spp. The epidemiological, clinical and anatomopathological aspects of a spontaneous outbreak of Senecio brasiliensis in calves are described here. Characterization and evolution of liver lesions during the outbreak are also described. Two hundred and six 4-month-old female calves were weaned and placed in a 25-hectare pasture heavily infested by S. brasiliensis at of varying growth stages. The calves remained in this pasture for three months and were later transferred to another area where six calves aged 7-8- month-old developed clinical signs including unthriftiness, diarrhea, and subcutaneous dependent edema in the submandibular region. All these six affected calves died within 15 days from the onset of clinical signs and one of those was necropsied. Grossly the first of three patterns of hepatic lesions described in this report was observed and it was characterized by an enlarged liver, with round borders and an orange hue to the capsular and cut surfaces. Histologically there was marked diffuse vacuolar hepatocellular degeneration, bilestasis, hepatocellular megalocytosis, and mild bile duct proliferation and periportal fibrosis. Two months after the onset of the outbreak, in another visit to the farm, it was observed that an additional 28 calves got sick and 14 died. Affected calves observed in this second on-site visit were 9-10 month-old and their main clinical sign was photosensitization characterized by varying degrees of photophobia, tearing from the eyes, marked drooling, mucopurulent ocular discharge, increased nasal secretion, and ventral diphtheric glossitis. Two of the fourteen calves that died were necropsied and displayed the second pattern of hepatic lesions observed in the outbreak. Liver had smooth and whitish capsular surfaces and a moderate decrease in size. There was moderate irregularity to the cut surface of hepatic parenchyma and pale areas intercalated with red ones. Histologically there was marked periportal fibrosis, marked bile duct proliferation, hepatocellular megalocytosis, focal areas of hepatocellular necrosis, and hemorrhage and veno-occlusive changes. In this second on-site visit, GGT serum activity was determined in 15 affected calves and 13 of them had increased values (26-175 U/L). Seven months after the onset of the outbreak, a third visit was made to the farm when was learned that and additional 27 calves have been affected, 23 of which died within a period of 40 days. At the necropsy of three of these calves the third pattern of hepatic lesions were observed. The liver was decreased in size and markedly firm. The capsular surface was smooth and whitish and the capsular surface was diffusely tan. Histological lesions similar to those observed in the second pattern were seen in in the liver of these three calves. A fourth on-site visit to the farm was made and a liver biopsy was performed in each of the 163 calves remaining in the herd and hepatic lesions characteristic of Senecio poisoning were observed in the liver biopsy of 103 of them. Affected calves were classified in groups according to the severity and morphologic aspects of the observed hepatic lesions. The diagnosis of Senecio poisoning in calves of this study was based on epidemiology, clinical and anatomopathological findings associated with the history of consumption of the plant, and on the chronological development of the lesions.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Panziera W., Gonçalves M.A., Oliveira L.G.S., Lorenzett M.P., Reis M., Hammerschmitt M.E., Pavarini S.P. & Driemeier D. 2017. [Senecio brasiliensis poisoning in calves: pattern and evolution of hepatic lesions.] Intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis em bezerros: padrão e evolução de lesões hepáticas. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(7):8-16. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br Intoxicações por plantas do gênero Senecio representam uma importante causa de morte em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul e estima-se que mais de 50% das mortes causadas por plantas tóxicas devem-se à intoxicação por Senecio spp. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em bezerros e a caracterização e evolução das lesões hepáticas durante o surto. Um lote com 206 bovinos, fêmeas, sem raça definida, foi desmamado com aproximadamente quatro meses de idade e soltos em campo nativo com 25 hectares, contendo grande quantidade de Senecio brasiliensis em diferentes estágios. Os bovinos permaneceram nesse campo durante três meses e posteriormente foram transferidos para outra área. Na nova área, seis bezerras, com idades entre sete a oito meses, começaram a apresentar sinais clínicos de emagrecimento, fraqueza, diarreia e edema subcutâneo de declive na região submandibular. Os seis bovinos morreram em um período de 15 dias e um deles foi necropsiado. Macroscopicamente, foi visualizado o primeiro dos três padrões distintos de lesão hepática dos bovinos desse surto, que se caracterizava por um fígado aumentado de tamanho, com os bordos arredondados e com superfície capsular e de corte alaranjada. Histologicamente havia acentuada degeneração vacuolar hepatocelular difusa, bilestase, megalocitose e leve proliferação de ductos biliares e fibrose periportal. Dois meses após o início do surto, constatou-se que em um período de 20 dias adoeceram mais 28 bezerras e, dessas, 14 morreram. Os bovinos acometidos nessa segunda visita tinham idades entre nove a 10 meses. O principal sinal clínico observado foi fotossensibilização, e incluía graus variados de fotofobia, lacrimejamento, salivação excessiva, descarga ocular mucopurulenta, secreção nasal e glossite diftérica ventral. Das 14 bezerras mortas, realizou-se a necropsia de duas delas, sendo visualizado o segundo padrão de lesão hepática nesse surto (Padrão 2). Os fígados estavam com a superfície capsular lisa e esbranquiçada e moderadamente diminuídos de tamanho. Ao corte observou-se leve irregularidade do parênquima e áreas mais claras intercaladas com áreas avermelhadas. O aspecto histológico incluía acentuada fibrose periportal, marcada proliferação de ductos biliares, megalocitose, áreas multifocais de necrose de hepatócitos, hemorragia e lesões veno-oclusivas. A atividade sérica da GGT foi avaliada em 15 bovinos afetados nessa segunda visita à propriedade. Desses, 13 bezerras testadas apresentaram alterações nos valores, que variaram de 26-175 U/L. Em uma terceira visita à propriedade, sete meses após o início do surto, mais 27 bezerras adoeceram em um período de 40 dias e, dessas, 23 morreram, sendo três submetidas à necropsia. Evidenciou-se o terceiro padrão de lesão hepática. O fígado dos três bovinos estava diminuído de tamanho e acentuadamente firme. A superfície capsular era lisa e esbranquiçada, e a superfície de corte apresentava-se difusamente acastanhada. Lesões histológicas semelhantes ao segundo padrão foram também constatadas no fígado dessas três bezerras. Na quarta visita à propriedade, realizaram-se biópsias hepáticas nos 163 bovinos restantes do lote. Lesões hepáticas características da intoxicação estavam presentes em 103 dos 163 bovinos submetidos à biopsia hepática. Os bovinos afetados foram classificados em grupos de acordo com a severidade e os aspectos morfológicos observados. O diagnóstico de intoxicação nos bovinos desse estudo baseou-se nos achados epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos, associados ao histórico do consumo da planta e evolução das lesões.


#5 - Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization, 34(5):427-432

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Giaretta P.R., Panziera W., Galiza G.J.A., Brum J.S., Bianchi R.M., Hammerschmitt M.E., Bazzi T. & Barros C.S.L. 2014. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(5):427-432. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Senecio spp. poisoning is the main cause of cattle mortality in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. This paper reports an outbreak of seneciosis in cattle with high prevalence of photosensitization, where 83 out of 162 cows (51.3%) presented this clinical sign. The outbreak occurred in September 2013, affecting adult cows that were held in a 205 hectare-pasture from April to October 2013 with abundant Senecio brasiliensis infestation. Main clinical signs were weight loss, excessive lacrimation or mucopurulent ocular discharge, nasal serous discharge, ventral diphteric glossitis, crusts in the nose, teats, dorsum of ears, and vulva. Liver biopsy was performed in all the cows under risk; the histopathological findings in the liver biopsies consisted of fibrosis, megalocytosis, and biliary ductal proliferation and were present in 73.4% of the biopsied animals. Six cows had increased serum activity of gamma glutamyl transferase. Three affected cows were necropsied. The main necropsy findings were a hard liver, distended gall bladder, edema of the mesentery and abomasum. Liver histological changes in the necropsied cows were similar to those of the biopsied livers. Spongiosis was detected in the brain of necropsied cows and is characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Giaretta P.R., Panziera W., Galiza G.J.A., Brum J.S., Bianchi R.M., Hammerschmitt M.E., Bazzi T. & Barros C.S.L. 2014. Seneciosis in cattle associated with photosensitization. [Seneciose em bovinos associada a fotossensibilização.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(5):427-432. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br A intoxicação por plantas do gênero Senecio é a principal causa de morte de bovinos na região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Neste trabalho, relata-se um surto de intoxicação por Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos com alta prevalência de fotossensibilização, onde 83 vacas de um total de 162 (51,3%) apresentaram esse sinal clínico. O surto ocorreu em setembro a outubro de 2013, acometendo vacas adultas que foram colocadas de abril a início de outubro de 2013 em um campo de 205 hectares com abundante infestação por Senecio brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, lacrimejamento excessivo ou secreção ocular mucopurulenta, secreção nasal serosa, glossite diftérica ventral e crostas no plano nasal, tetos, ponta das orelhas e na vulva. Realizou-se biópsia hepática em todas as vacas do rebanho; os principais achados histopatológicos nas bipósias hepáticas foram fibrose hepática, megalocitose e proliferação de ductos biliares. As lesões hepáticas foram observadas em 73,4% dos bovinos submetidos à biópsia hepáica. Seis vacas testadas apresentaram aumento da atividade sérica da gama glutamil transferase. Três vacas doentes foram necropsiadas. Nas vacas necropsiadas, o fígado era firme, a vesícula biliar distendida e havia edema do mesentério e do abomaso. As lesões histológicas observadas nos fígados dos bovinos necropsiados eram semelhantes às encontradas nas biópsias hepáticas. Espongiose foi detectada no cérebro das vacas necropsiadas e é uma lesão característica de encefalopatia hepática.


#6 - Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool., 32(10):1017-1022

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Bandarra P.M., Oliveira L.G., Dalto A.G., Boabaid F.M., Juffo G., Riet-Correa F., Driemeier D. & Cruz C.E.F. 2012. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(10):1017-1022. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: claudio.cruz@ufrgs.br Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122) and S. madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507) were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn’t reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Bandarra P.M., Oliveira L.G., Dalto A.G., Boabaid F.M., Juffo G., Riet-Correa F., Driemeier D. & Cruz C.E.F. 2012. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(10):1017-1022. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: claudio.cruz@ufrgs.br As intoxicações por Senecio spp. estão entre as principais causas de morte de bovinos no sul do Brasil; portanto, o controle dessas plantas é prioridade para a pecuária local. Depois de uma roçada, o pastejo por 16 ovinos controlou, eficientemente, populações de Senecio brasiliensis e Senecio madagascariensis em uma área de 5,5 hectares, a qual havia se mantido, por oito anos consecutivos, severamente, infestada por essas espécies. Um total de 28.629 plantas, entre S. brasiliensis (10.122) e S. madagascariensis (18.507) foi, virtualmente, eliminado em um período de dois anos. O número de ovelhas foi mantido em três unidades / hectare, mas variáveis lotações de bovinos foram associadas com a disponibilidade de forragem. As principais práticas de manejo sanitário aplicadas aos ovinos foram administrações de anti-helmínticos. Biópsias hepáticas, colhidas antes e após o período de estudo, não revelaram qualquer alteração associável com seneciose. Os níveis de desempenho dos ovinos foram comparáveis aos observados em rebanhos manejados em sistemas extensivos tradicionais no sul do Brasil.


#7 - Acute experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in sheep and induced resistance against the poisoning, 32(9):912-916

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Grecco F.B., Estima-Silva P., Marcolongo-Pereira C., Soares M.P., Raffi M.B. & Schild A.L. 2012. [Acute experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in sheep and induced resistance against the poisoning.] Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(9):912-916. Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitário s/n, Pelotas, RS 96010-900, Brazil. E-mail: alschild@terra.com.br Sheep are more resistant to poisoning by Senecio spp. than cattle and horses. To determine whether this resistance could be induced by ingestion of small and repeated doses of the plant and to know how long the resistance could last, three experiments with fresh green leaves and stalks of Senecio brasiliensis were conducted. In Experiment 1, to determine the minimum dose for acute poisoning, single doses of 60, 80, 90, 100 and 100g/kg body weight (bw) were administered to five 1 and a half-year-old male Corriedale sheep. The sheep fed 60g/kg bw and 80g/kg bw of S. brasiliensis did not get sick; however, the sheep that received 80g/kg bw, developed mild fibrosis and megalocytosis in liver biopsies performed 90, 120 and 150 days after the end of plant administration. The sheep that received 90 and 100g/kg bw showed clinical signs of anorexia, prostration, paddling movements and abdominal pain, and died 12-48 hours after the onset of clinical signs. At their necropsy, ascites, disseminated petechiae and accentuated lobular pattern of the liver were found, and histologicaly hemorrhagic centrilobular necrosis was observed. In Experiment 2, the dose of 100g/kg bw fractionated into 2, 5 and 10 daily doses was administered to three sheep respectively. The fractioned dosage did not cause clinical signs of poisoning in any of the sheep, but periportal fibrosis and moderate megalocytosis were observed in liver biopsy performed at day 60 after the end of the plant administration. No histological lesions were observed in hepatic biopsies of sheep that received 10 daily doses of 10g/kg bw. In Experiment 3, to determine whether the sheep become resistant to the acute form of poisoning, four sheep ingested daily doses of 15g/kg bw of S. brasiliensis during 30 days and daily doses of 30g/kg bw for 10 days. On the day following the last dose of 30g/kg bw, two sheep were challenged with 100g/kg bw of the plant in a single dose. No clinical signs were observed in both sheep and no histological lesions could be found in the liver biopsies obtained 15 and 30 days after administration of the challenge dose. The third and fourth sheep received the challenge dose (100g/kg bw) 15 and 45 days after the end of plant administration. These animals showed anorexia, abdominal pain, and died about 12 hours after the onset of clinical signs. Gross and microscopic lesions were similar to those observed in sheep from Experiment 1. The results of this study demonstrate that sheep are susceptible to acute S. brasiliensis poisoning at doses of 90 and 100g/kg bw, but they become resistant after the continuous ingestion of small daily doses. This resistance has been lost 15 days after the end of the plant ingestion. Natural acute poisoning by S. brasiliensis probably does not occur in sheep, because they would have to eat large amounts of the plant in a short period of time.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Grecco F.B., Estima-Silva P., Marcolongo-Pereira C., Soares M.P., Raffi M.B. & Schild A.L. 2012. [Acute experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in sheep and induced resistance against the poisoning.] Intoxicação experimental aguda por Senecio brasiliensis em ovinos e indução de resistência à intoxicação. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(9):912-916. Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Universitário s/n, Pelotas, RS 96010-900, Brazil. E-mail: alschild@terra.com.br Ovinos são mais resistentes à intoxicação por Senecio spp. que bovinos e equinos. Para determinar se essa resistência é induzida pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses da planta e se essa resistência é duradoura, foram realizados três experimentos com folhas e talos verdes de Senecio brasilienses. Para determinar a dose mínima que causa intoxicação aguda (experimento 1), foram administradas doses únicas de 60, 80, 90, 100 e 100g/kg de peso corporal (pc) a cinco ovinos, respectivamente. Os animais que receberam 60 e 80 g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis não adoeceram, porém o ovino que recebeu 80g/kg de pc apresentava fibrose e megalocitose discretas nas biópsias realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 dias do término da administração da planta. Os ovinos que receberam 90 e 100g/kg de pc apresentaram anorexia, prostração, movimentos de pedalagem, dor abdominal e morte 12-48 horas após o aparecimento dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia havia ascite, petéquias disseminadas e acentuação do padrão lobular hepático. Histologicamente havia necrose hemorrágica centro-lobular. No Experimento 2 a dose capaz de causar a intoxicação aguda foi fracionada e administrada em duas, cinco e 10 doses diárias para 3 ovinos, respectivamente. A dose tóxica fracionada não provocou sinais clínicos de intoxicação em nenhum dos ovinos, porém havia fibrose periportal e megalocitose moderadas nas biopsias realizadas aos 60 dias do término da administração da planta, as quais não evoluíram. O ovino que recebeu a dose fracionada em 10 administrações não apresentou lesões histológicas nas biópsias. Para determinar se os ovinos tornam-se resistentes à forma aguda da intoxicação (experimento 3), foram administradas doses diárias de 15g/kg de pc por 30 dias e 30g/kg de pc por 10 dias a quatro ovinos. No dia seguinte à última administração dois ovinos receberam a dose única de 100g/kg de pc de S. brasiliensis, mas não adoeceram nem apresentaram lesões em biópsias realizadas 15 e 30 dias após o desafio. Entretanto, dois ovinos que receberam essa dose, 15 e 45 dias após a última administração da planta, respectivamente, apresentaram anorexia, dor abdominal, movimentos de pedalagem e morreram 12 horas após o início dos sinais clínicos. As lesões macro e microscópicas eram semelhantes às observadas nos ovinos do Experimento 1. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram que, experimentalmente, ovinos intoxicam-se de forma aguda com doses únicas de 90-100g/kg de pc, mas são capazes de suportar essas doses após a ingestão contínua de pequenas quantidades da planta, no entanto, essa suposta resistência é perdida se os ovinos deixam de ingerir a mesma. Pode-se sugerir também que a intoxicação aguda natural, provavelmente, não ocorre devido à improbabilidade de ingestão, por um ovino, da quantidade necessária de planta em um período curto de tempo.


#8 - Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul, p.187-189

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Corrêa A.M.R., Bezerra P.S.J., Pavarini S.P., Santos A.S., Sonne L., Zlotowski P., Gomes G. & Driemeier D. 2008. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(3):187-189. Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br Thirteen (14.4%) out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2%) of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Corrêa A.M.R., Bezerra P.S.J., Pavarini S.P., Santos A.S., Sonne L., Zlotowski P., Gomes G. & Driemeier D. 2008. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(3):187-189. Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br Thirteen (14.4%) out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2%) of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.


#9 - Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells, p.43-50

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Torres M.B.A.M. & Coelho K.I.R. 2008. Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(1):43-50. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus Palotina, Rua Pioneiro 2153, Jardim Dallas, Palotina, PR 85950-000, Brazil. E-mail: torres@ufpr.br Extracellular matrix plays an important role in chronic hepatic lesions and has been studied in experimental intoxication models. However in cattle, studies on chronic disease have focused on the hepatocellular damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes are usually overlooked. There are no specific studies on the hepatic ECM in either normal or chronically damaged bovine liver. Thus an experimental model of hepatic toxicity model using Senecio brasiliensis poisoned calves was designed. Senecio brasiliensis contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which cause either acute or chronic progressive dose dependent liver damage. Five calves were orally fed with 0.38g of dry leaves of S. brasiliensis/kg/day for 24 days. Liver needle biopsy specimens were obtained every 15 days for 60 days. Clinical signs of digestive complications appeared at 3rd week. One calf died on 45th day and four were evaluated up to 60th day. Biopsy samples were processed for routine light microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. From 30th day on progressive liver damage characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, necrosis, apoptosis and megalocytosis, centrilobular, pericellular and portal fibrosis were seen by light microscopy. Quantitative and semi-quantitative measurements of hepatic ECM components were performed before and after the onset of lesions. Morphometric analysis of total collagen and elastic fiber system was conducted. Total collagen and I and III collagen types progressively increased in throughout the liver of affected calves. Changes in location, amount and disposition of the elastic fiber system were also observed. Then numbers of Kupffer cells were significantly increased at 30th day and total numbers of sinusoidal cells were significantly increased at 45th and 60th days. Liver damage was progressive and irreversible even after the exposure to the plant was discontinued. Severe fibrotic lesions occurred mainly in portal tracts, followed by veno-occlusive and pericellular fibrosis. Collagen types I and III s were present in every normal and damaged liver, with predominance of type I. In affected calves the increase of total collagen and elastic fibers system paralleled the number of total sinusoidal cells.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Torres M.B.A.M. & Coelho K.I.R. 2008. Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(1):43-50. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus Palotina, Rua Pioneiro 2153, Jardim Dallas, Palotina, PR 85950-000, Brazil. E-mail: torres@ufpr.br Extracellular matrix plays an important role in chronic hepatic lesions and has been studied in experimental intoxication models. However in cattle, studies on chronic disease have focused on the hepatocellular damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) changes are usually overlooked. There are no specific studies on the hepatic ECM in either normal or chronically damaged bovine liver. Thus an experimental model of hepatic toxicity model using Senecio brasiliensis poisoned calves was designed. Senecio brasiliensis contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which cause either acute or chronic progressive dose dependent liver damage. Five calves were orally fed with 0.38g of dry leaves of S. brasiliensis/kg/day for 24 days. Liver needle biopsy specimens were obtained every 15 days for 60 days. Clinical signs of digestive complications appeared at 3rd week. One calf died on 45th day and four were evaluated up to 60th day. Biopsy samples were processed for routine light microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. From 30th day on progressive liver damage characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, necrosis, apoptosis and megalocytosis, centrilobular, pericellular and portal fibrosis were seen by light microscopy. Quantitative and semi-quantitative measurements of hepatic ECM components were performed before and after the onset of lesions. Morphometric analysis of total collagen and elastic fiber system was conducted. Total collagen and I and III collagen types progressively increased in throughout the liver of affected calves. Changes in location, amount and disposition of the elastic fiber system were also observed. Then numbers of Kupffer cells were significantly increased at 30th day and total numbers of sinusoidal cells were significantly increased at 45th and 60th days. Liver damage was progressive and irreversible even after the exposure to the plant was discontinued. Severe fibrotic lesions occurred mainly in portal tracts, followed by veno-occlusive and pericellular fibrosis. Collagen types I and III s were present in every normal and damaged liver, with predominance of type I. In affected calves the increase of total collagen and elastic fibers system paralleled the number of total sinusoidal cells.


#10 - Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos, p.287-296

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Pilati C. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in horses.] Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(7):287-296. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations), 1.74% (two weekly administrations), 3.0% (three daily administrations), 7.42% (17 weekly administrations), 8.9% (284 daily administrations), 9.66% (82 daily administrations) and 9.30% (43 weekly administrations) of their body weight. Two horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 15.0% (30 and 60 daily administrations) of their body weight died during the experiments due to unrelated causes. Three horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.5% and 1.0% (single administrations), and 15.0% (240 daily administrations) of their body weight, and the control horse survived without any clinical signs. The disease induced by the plant had a clinical course of 1-30 days and was characterized by anorexia, jaundice and neurological signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Weight loss was observed in the more protracted cases. Necropsy findings included marked enhancement of the lobular pattern of the livers or those were firm and dark-red. Hemorrhages were frequent and more conspicuous on the subcutis, serosal surfaces and in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Edema occurred in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and in body cavities. Histologically, the livers of horses that ingested relatively larger amounts of the plant for short periods of time had zonal coagulative necrosis and centrilobular to massive hemorrhages. Moderate to marked hepatomegalocytosis and mild to moderate fibrosis were seen in 4 horses which ingested small amounts of the plant for longer periods. Cholestasis and hemosiderosis were observed in the liver of 8 horses, neutrophilic aggregates in 6 and acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies in hepatocytes of 3 horses. Changes suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the brain of 6 horses. The earliest detected change in the liver biopsies was vacuolization of hepatocyte nuclei followed by apoptotic loss of hepatocytes, hepatomegalocytosis, infiltration of neutrophils and centrolobular necrosis. Occasionally hepatocellular acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies and, in more protracted cases, slight fibrosis were seen. No changes were observed in the liver biopsies of the 3 plant-fed horses that survived, nor on the 2 horses that died of unrelated causes. The control horse had no clinical signs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Pilati C. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) in horses.] Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) em eqüinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(7):287-296. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng.) collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations), 1.74% (two weekly administrations), 3.0% (three daily administrations), 7.42% (17 weekly administrations), 8.9% (284 daily administrations), 9.66% (82 daily administrations) and 9.30% (43 weekly administrations) of their body weight. Two horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 15.0% (30 and 60 daily administrations) of their body weight died during the experiments due to unrelated causes. Three horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.5% and 1.0% (single administrations), and 15.0% (240 daily administrations) of their body weight, and the control horse survived without any clinical signs. The disease induced by the plant had a clinical course of 1-30 days and was characterized by anorexia, jaundice and neurological signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Weight loss was observed in the more protracted cases. Necropsy findings included marked enhancement of the lobular pattern of the livers or those were firm and dark-red. Hemorrhages were frequent and more conspicuous on the subcutis, serosal surfaces and in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Edema occurred in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and in body cavities. Histologically, the livers of horses that ingested relatively larger amounts of the plant for short periods of time had zonal coagulative necrosis and centrilobular to massive hemorrhages. Moderate to marked hepatomegalocytosis and mild to moderate fibrosis were seen in 4 horses which ingested small amounts of the plant for longer periods. Cholestasis and hemosiderosis were observed in the liver of 8 horses, neutrophilic aggregates in 6 and acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies in hepatocytes of 3 horses. Changes suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the brain of 6 horses. The earliest detected change in the liver biopsies was vacuolization of hepatocyte nuclei followed by apoptotic loss of hepatocytes, hepatomegalocytosis, infiltration of neutrophils and centrolobular necrosis. Occasionally hepatocellular acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies and, in more protracted cases, slight fibrosis were seen. No changes were observed in the liver biopsies of the 3 plant-fed horses that survived, nor on the 2 horses that died of unrelated causes. The control horse had no clinical signs.


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