Resultado da pesquisa (11)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa infectious diseases

#1 - Clinical and pathological findings of Rhodococcus equi infection in foals

Abstract in English:

Infection by Rhodococcus equi is considered one of the major health concerns for foals worldwide. In order to better understand the disease’s clinical and pathological features, we studied twenty cases of natural infection by R. equi in foals. These cases are characterized according to their clinical and pathological findings and immunohistochemical aspects. Necropsy, histologic examination, bacterial culture, R. equi and Pneumocystis spp. immunohistochemistry were performed. The foals had a mean age of 60 days and presented respiratory signs (11/20), hyperthermia (10/20), articular swelling (6/20), prostration (4/20), locomotor impairment (3/20) and diarrhea (3/20), among others. The main lesions were of pyogranulomatous pneumonia, seen in 19 foals, accompanied or not by pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis (10/20) and pyogranulomatous and ulcerative enterocolitis (5/20). Pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was seen in 3 foals, one of which did not have pulmonary involvement. There was lymphoplasmacytic (4/20), lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic (1/20) or pyogranulomatous arthritis (1/20), affecting multiple or singular joints. Immunohistochemistry revealed to be a valuable tool for the detection of R. equi, confirming the diagnosis in all cases. Furthermore, pulmonary immunostaining for Pneumocystis spp. demonstrates that a coinfection with R. equi and this fungal agent is a common event in foals, seen in 13 cases.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Infecção por Rhodococcus equi é considerado um dos maiores problemas sanitários para potros em todo o mundo. Para melhor compreender a apresentação clínica e patológica da enfermidade, foram avaliados vinte casos de infecção natural por R. equi em potros. Os casos são caracterizados de acordo com seus achados clínicos e patológicos e aspectos imuno-histoquímicos. Foram realizados exames de necropsia, histologia, bacteriologia e imuno-histoquímica para R. equi e Pneumocystis spp. Os potros tinham idade media de 60 dias e apresentaram sinais respiratórios (11/20), hipertermia (10/20), aumento de volume articular (6/20), prostração (4/20), distúrbios locomotores (3/20) e diarreia (3/20), entre outros. As lesões mais importantes eram pneumonia piogranulomatosa, vista em 19 potros, acompanhada ou não por linfadenite piogranulomatosa (10/20) e enterocolite ulcerativa (5/20). Osteomielite piogranulomatosa foi constatada em três potros, um dos quais não apresentava envolvimento pulmonar. Artrites afetando uma ou múltiplas articulações eram caracterizadas por infiltrado linfoplasmocítico (4/20), linfoplasmocítico e neutrofílico (1/20) e piogranulomatoso (1/20). A imuno‑histoquímica demonstrou ser uma ferramenta valiosa na detecção de R. equi, permitindo confirmar o diagnóstico em todos os casos avaliados. Além disso, a imuno-histoquímica para Pneumocystis spp. demonstra que a coinfecção por R. equi e o agente fúngico é um evento frequente em potros, constatado em 13 casos.


#2 - Causes of death and euthanasia in domestic cats in the Santa Catarina plateau (1995-2015)

Abstract in English:

Knowledge about the causes of death in felines constitutes important information to owners, veterinarians, and researchers, aiming at reducing the number of deaths in this species. In order to determine the main causes of death or euthanasia in cats in the Santa Catarina plateau, data from 1995 to 2015 available in necropsy files of the Laboratory of Animal Pathology (LAPA) of the State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC) were collected and evaluated. In that period, 1,728 cats were necropsied, mainly males (46.12%) and adults (50.11%). The mean ages at death for kittens, adults, and elderly were 5.07 months, 3.9 years, and 13.9 years, respectively. Of the 1,728 necropsy reports assessed, the cause of death was identified in 1,184 (68.52%) cases. The main cause of death was associated with infectious diseases (15.8%), with prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis (29.76%), followed by neoplasms (11.98%) with lymphoma (44.93%) and leukemia (16.91%) as the most common, and traumas (11.81%) mainly caused by motor vehicle accidents. These results show the need for owner awareness, as well as establishment of prophylaxis and vaccination programs, aimed at reducing the number of deaths and thus increasing life expectancy in the feline population.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O conhecimento a respeito da causa mortis em felinos é importante para que se construa um informativo para proprietários, médicos veterinários e pesquisadores, objetivando a redução no número de mortes na espécie. Com o intuito de determinar as principais causas de morte ou eutanásia em felinos domésticos no planalto catarinense foram avaliados os arquivos de registro das necropsias do período de 1995 a 2015 do Laboratório de Patologia Animal da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina. No período, foram necropsiados 1.728 felinos, principalmente machos (46,12%), adultos (50,11%). A idade média para filhotes foi de 5,07 meses, enquanto para adultos foi 3,9 anos e para idosos 13,9 anos. Das 1.728 necropsias de felinos, a enfermidade que levou o animal a morte foi determinada em 1.184 (68,52%). As doenças infecciosas foram a principal causa de morte (15,8%), dentre as quais a peritonite infecciosa felina (29,76%) foi a mais frequente; seguida das neoplasias (11,98%), sendo o linfoma (44,93%) e a leucemia (16,91%), as mais comuns; e dos traumatismos (11,81%), principalmente atropelamentos por veículos automotivos. Estes resultados refletem a necessidade da conscientização dos proprietários, bem como da instituição de programas de profilaxia e vacinação, visando a redução de mortes e o aumento na expectativa de vida para a população felina.


#3 - Causes of death in goats in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil: analysis of 322 cases (2000-2016)

Abstract in English:

The diagnosis of the cause of death in goats submitted to necropsy from January 2000 to December 2016 by Setor de Patologia Veterinária from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul was reviewed. Epidemiological features, such as the breed, sex and age, in addition to the clinical and pathological features were evaluated. During this period, 322 goats were necropsied, in which a conclusive diagnosis was obtained in 290 (90%) goats. Goats that were part of other experimental study were excluded from this study. From these 290 cases, 167 (57.6%) corresponded to diseases of infectious origin and toxinfectious diseases, while 123 (42.4%) were classified as non-infectious conditions. Infectious diseases included 55 cases of bacterial origin, 59 cases with parasitary involvement, 14 cases of viral origin, and 39 toxinfectious cases. Non-infectious conditions were grouped into metabolic diseases (44 cases), plants or chemical substances poisoning (36), mineral and nutritional deficiencies (20), and neoplasms and developmental disorders (5). In the remaining 18 cases, a conclusive diagnosis was obtained, however the conditions did not fit into those criteria and were classified as “others”. The age range of the goats in this study was from 1 day-old to 10 years-old. Most of the goats were females (201), while 121 were males. Affected breeds included Boer, Saanen, Anglo-Nubian, Toggenburg and mixed breeds. Parasitic, infectious and toxin-infectious diseases were the main cause of deaths, especially haemonchosis, pleuropneumonia, eimeriosis and enterotoxemia. Among the non-infectious conditions, metabolic disorders, especially rumen acidosis, pregnancy toxemia and urolithiasis, were directly related to the management employed in the property. Plant poisoning diagnosis was also highlighted with locally present plants, such as Sida carpinifolia, as the most important.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Foram revisadas as causas de morte de caprinos submetidos ao exame de necropsia no período compreendido entre janeiro de 2000 e dezembro de 2016 pelo Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Avaliaram-se os dados epidemiológicos relacionados à raça, sexo e idade, assim como as alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas observadas. Durante esse período, foram recebidos para necropsia 322 caprinos, nos quais em 290 casos (90%) foi obtido o diagnóstico conclusivo. Caprinos destinados à experimentação animal foram excluídos deste estudo. Do total de 290 casos, 167 (57,6%) corresponderam a enfermidades de origem infecciosa e toxi-infecciosa, enquanto 123 (42,4%) em causas não infecciosas. Entre as doenças infecciosas foram contabilizados 55 casos de origem bacteriana, 59 casos com envolvimento parasitário, 14 casos de origem viral, e 39 casos toxi-infecciosos. As doenças de caráter não infeccioso foram agrupadas em doenças metabólicas (44 casos), intoxicações por plantas ou substâncias tóxicas (36), deficiências minerais e nutricionais (20), neoplasias e distúrbios no desenvolvimento (5). Dezoito casos com diagnóstico conclusivo, mas que não se enquadravam nestas classificações foram agrupadas como “outros”. A faixa etária dos caprinos neste estudo variou de um dia a 10 anos. A maior parte dos animais eram fêmeas (201), enquanto 121 eram machos. As raças dos caprinos necropsiados neste período incluíram Boer, Saanen, Anglo-Nubiano, Toggenburg e sem raça definida (SRD). As enfermidades de origem parasitárias, infecciosas e toxi-infecciosas, especialmente hemoncose, eimeriose, pleuropneumonias e a enterotoxemia acarretaram o maior número de mortes. Das causas não infecciosas, distúrbios metabólicos, como acidose lática ruminal, toxemia da prenhez e urolitíase, estiveram diretamente relacionadas com o manejo empregado nas propriedades. Evidenciou-se também a importância do diagnóstico de intoxicações por plantas relevantes da região, como Sida carpinifolia.


#4 - Suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system in domestic ruminants, 37(8):820-828

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Konradt G., Bassuino D.M., Prates K.S., Bianchi M.V., Snel G.G.M., Sonne L., Driemeier D. & Pavarini S.P. 2017. Suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system in domestic ruminants. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(8):820-828. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: saulo.pavarini@ufrgs.br This study describes suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in domestic ruminants of southern Brazil. Reports from 3.274 cattle, 596 sheep and 391 goats were reviewed, of which 219 cattle, 21 sheep and 7 goats were diagnosed with central nervous system inflammatory diseases. Suppurative infectious diseases of the CNS corresponded to 54 cases (28 cattle, 19 sheep and 7 goats). The conditions observed consisted of listerial meningoencephalitis (8 sheep, 5 goats and 4 cattle), suppurative leptomeningitis and meningoencephalitis (14 cattle, 2 goats and 1 sheep), cerebral (6 cattle and 2 sheep), and spinal cord (7 sheep) abscesses, and basilar empyema (4 cattle and 1 sheep). Bacterial culture identified Listeria monocytogenes (9/54 cases), Escherichia coli (7/54 cases), Trueperella pyogenes (6/54 cases) and Proteus mirabilis (1/54 cases). All cases diagnosed as listeriosis through histopathology yielded positive immunostaining on immunohistochemistry, while 12/17 of the cases of suppurative leptomeningitis and meningoencephalitis presented positive immunostaining for Escherichia coli. Meningoencephalitis by L. monocytogenes was the main neurological disease in sheep and goats, followed by spinal cord abscesses in sheep. In cattle, leptomeningitis and suppurative meningoencephalitis was the most frequent neurological disease for the species, and E. coli was the main cause of these lesions. Basilar empyema, mainly diagnosed in cattle, is related to traumatic injuries, mainly in the nasal cavity, and the main etiologic agent was T. pyogenes.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Konradt G., Bassuino D.M., Prates K.S., Bianchi M.V., Snel G.G.M., Sonne L., Driemeier D. & Pavarini S.P. 2017. Suppurative infectious diseases of the central nervous system in domestic ruminants. [Doenças infecciosas supurativas do sistema nervoso central de ruminantes domésticos.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(8):820-828. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Prédio 42505, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: saulo.pavarini@ufrgs.br Neste trabalho são descritas as doenças neurológicas infecciosas supurativas de ruminantes domésticos na Região Sul do Brasil. Foram avaliados laudos de 3.274 bovinos, 596 ovinos e 391 caprinos, dos quais 219 bovinos, 21 ovinos e sete caprinos foram diagnosticados como doenças inflamatórias no sistema nervoso central. As doenças neurológicas infecciosas supurativas corresponderam a 54 casos (28 bovinos, 19 ovinos e sete caprinos). As enfermidades observadas foram meningoencefalite por Listeria monocytogenes (oito ovinos, cinco caprinos e quatro bovinos), leptomeningite e meningoencefalite supurativa (14 bovinos, dois caprinos e um ovino), abscessos cerebrais (seis bovinos e dois ovinos) e medulares (sete ovinos); e empiema basilar (quatro bovinos e um ovino). Através do isolamento bacteriano foram identificados: L. monocytogenes (9/54 casos), Echerichia coli (7/54 casos), Trueperella pyogenes (6/54 casos) e Proteus mirabilis (1/54 casos). Todos os casos diagnosticados como listeriose por histologia foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para L. monocytogenes, e 12/17 casos de leptomeningite e meningoencefalite supurativa foram positivos na imuno-histoquímica para E. coli. A meningoencefalite por L. monocytogenes representou a principal enfermidade neurológica em ovinos e caprinos, seguido dos abscessos medulares em ovinos. A leptomeningite e meningoencefalite supurativa foi a doença neurológica supurativa mais frequente em bovinos e o principal agente causador da lesão foi E. coli. O empiema basilar, frequentemente, diagnosticado em bovinos, foi relacionado com lesões traumáticas, principalmente, de cavidade nasal e o principal agente causador foi T. pyogenes.


#5 - Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from septic arthritis in horses, 37(4):325-330

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Motta R.G., Martins L.S.A., Motta I.G., Guerra S.T., De Paula C.L., Bolanos C.A.D., Silva R.C. & Ribeiro M.G. 2017. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from septic arthritis in horses. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(4):325-330. Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Cx. Postal 560, Botucatu, SP 18618-681, Brazil. E-mail: rgmottafmvz@gmail.com Septic arthritis is a debilitating joint infectious disease of equines that requires early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention to prevent degenerative effects on the articular cartilage, as well as loss of athletic ability and work performance of the animals. Few studies have investigated the etiological complexity of this disease, as well as multidrug resistance of isolates. In this study, 60 horses with arthritis had synovial fluid samples aseptically collected, and tested by microbiological culture and in vitro susceptibility test (disk diffusion) using nine antimicrobials belonging to six different pharmacological groups. Bacteria were isolated in 45 (75.0%) samples, as follows: Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (11=18.3%), Escherichia coli (9=15.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6=10.0%), Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (5=8.3%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2=3.3%), Proteus vulgaris (2=3.3%), Trueperella pyogenes (2=3.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2=3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1=1.7%), Rhodococcus equi (1=1.7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1=1.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1=1.7%), Nocardia asteroides (1=1.7%), and Enterobacter cloacae (1=1.7%). Ceftiofur was the most effective drug (>70% efficacy) against the pathogens in the disk diffusion test. In contrast, high resistance rate (>70% resistance) was observed to penicillin (42.2%), enrofloxacin (33.3%), and amikacin (31.2%). Eleven (24.4%) isolates were resistant to three or more different pharmacological groups and were considered multidrug resistant strains. The present study emphasizes the etiological complexity of equine septic arthritis, and highlights the need to institute treatment based on the in vitro susceptibility pattern, due to the multidrug resistance of isolates. According to the available literature, this is the first report in Brazil on the investigation of the etiology. of the septic arthritis in a great number of horses associated with multidrug resistance of the isolates.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Motta R.G., Martins L.S.A., Motta I.G., Guerra S.T., De Paula C.L., Bolanos C.A.D., Silva R.C. & Ribeiro M.G. 2017. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from septic arthritis in horses. [Bactérias multirresistentes isoladas de artrite séptica equina.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 37(4):325-330. Departamento de Higiene Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Cx. Postal 560, Botucatu, SP 18618-681, Brazil. E-mail: rgmottafmvz@gmail.com Artrite séptica é uma artropatia infecciosa debilitante de equinos, que requer diagnóstico precoce e intervenção terapêutica imediata, com intuito de evitar a degeneração de a cartilagem articular e a perda da capacidade atlética e de trabalho dos animais. Poucos estudos têm investigado a complexidade etiológica da afecção, bem como a presença de multirresistência dos isolados aos antimicrobianos. Foram investigados 60 equinos portadores de artrite, submetidos à colheita asséptica de líquido sinovial para a realização de cultivo microbiológico e teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro (difusão com discos) com nove antimicrobianos pertencentes a seis diferentes grupos farmacológicos. Foi obtido isolamento microbiano em 45 (75,0%) amostras, como segue: Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (11=18,3%), Escherichia coli (9=15,0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6=10,0%), Streptococcus zooepidemicus (5=8,3%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2=3,3%), Proteus vulgaris (2=3,3%), Trueperella pyogenes (2=3,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2=3,3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1=1,7%), Rhodococcus equi (1=1,7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1=1,7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1=1,7%), Nocardia asteroides (1=1,7%) e Enterobacter cloacae (1=1,7%). Ceftiofur foi o antimicrobiano mais efetivo (>70% eficácia) in vitro diante dos patógenos. Em contraste, alta resistência dos isolados (>70% de resistência) foi observada para penicilina (42,2%), enrofloxacino (33,3%) e amicacina (31,2%). Onze (24,4%) isolados foram resistentes a três ou mais diferentes grupamentos de fármacos e considerados com resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos. O presente estudo enaltece a complexidade etiológica envolvida na artrite séptica em equinos e ressalta a necessidade de instituir o tratamento dos animais com respaldo de testes de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro em virtude da resistência múltipla dos isolados. De acordo com a literatura consultada, esta é a primeira descrição no país da etiologia da artrite séptica em grande número de equinos associada a multirresistência dos isolados aos fármacos testados.


#6 - Padronização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para raiva em amostras de tecido do sistema nervoso central de bovinos fixadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina, p.627-632

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Pedroso P.M.O., Pescador C.A., Bandarra P.M., Raymundo D.L., Borba M.R., Wouters F., Bezerra Jr P.S. & Driemeier D. 2008. [Standardization of immunohistochemistry technique for detection of rabies virus in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from central nervous system of cattle.] Padronização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para raiva em amostras de tecido do sistema nervoso central de bovinos fixadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(12):627-632. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br For standardization of the rabies immunohistochemistry technique, five samples of central nervous system (CNS) of cattle naturally infected with rabies virus were examined. One polyclonal antibody and two monoclonal antibodies were used. The following reagents were evaluated for antigen retrieval: XIV protease, proteinase K and citrate buffer (pH 6.0) boiling at 100°C during 15 minutes in bain-marie. Detection of rabic antigen was possible with the three antibodies tested. The polyclonal antibody was superior to the monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating good results with the three antigen retrieval protocols. The highest intensity staining was obtained with the citrate buffer and heat. The immunohistochemistry technique demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in the cytoplasm of neurons, in form of aggregates or with round or oval shape. The antigens were found as single or multiples inclusion bodies in the neurons. Immunohistochemistry is a fast method that can be used in routine procedures in cases where rabies is suspected, especially when the brain is submitted to the laboratory as formalin-fixed fragments or when samples could not be immediately shipped. The technique is also useful for retrospective studies.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Pedroso P.M.O., Pescador C.A., Bandarra P.M., Raymundo D.L., Borba M.R., Wouters F., Bezerra Jr P.S. & Driemeier D. 2008. [Standardization of immunohistochemistry technique for detection of rabies virus in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples from central nervous system of cattle.] Padronização da técnica de imuno-histoquímica para raiva em amostras de tecido do sistema nervoso central de bovinos fixadas em formol e emblocadas em parafina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(12):627-632. Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davetpat@ufrgs.br For standardization of the rabies immunohistochemistry technique, five samples of central nervous system (CNS) of cattle naturally infected with rabies virus were examined. One polyclonal antibody and two monoclonal antibodies were used. The following reagents were evaluated for antigen retrieval: XIV protease, proteinase K and citrate buffer (pH 6.0) boiling at 100°C during 15 minutes in bain-marie. Detection of rabic antigen was possible with the three antibodies tested. The polyclonal antibody was superior to the monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating good results with the three antigen retrieval protocols. The highest intensity staining was obtained with the citrate buffer and heat. The immunohistochemistry technique demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in the cytoplasm of neurons, in form of aggregates or with round or oval shape. The antigens were found as single or multiples inclusion bodies in the neurons. Immunohistochemistry is a fast method that can be used in routine procedures in cases where rabies is suspected, especially when the brain is submitted to the laboratory as formalin-fixed fragments or when samples could not be immediately shipped. The technique is also useful for retrospective studies.


#7 - Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos, p.325-332

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Inkelmann M.A., Rozza D.B., Fighera R.A., Kommers G.D., Graça D.L., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Infectious canine hepatitis: 62 cases.] Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(8):325-332. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Necropsy reports from 5,361 dogs necropsied over a 43-year period (1964-2006) were reviewed in search for cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH). Sixty two (1.2%) cases of the disease were found. Most of the 62 affected dogs (91.9%,) were 2-year-old or less. Clinical signs were recorded in the necropsy files of 45 ICH affected dogs and included anorexia (55.6%), apathy (35.6%), diarrhea (35.6%) (often with blood [43,8%]), neurological signs (33.3%), vomiting (26.7%), petechiae and echymosis in the mucous membranes and/or skin (24.4%), hypothermia (20.0%), abdominal pain (15.6%), icterus (13.3%), enlargement and congestion of the tonsils (11.1%), fever (11.1%) and ascites (6.7%). The clinical courses lasted from few hours to 15 days. The most frequent necropsy findings included hepatic changes (87.1%), edematous, congested and hemorrhagic lymph nodes (51.6%), bloodstained fluid, clear fluid or whole blood in the abdominal cavity (35.5%), and petechial or paint-brush hemorrhages over the pleural (27.4%) and gastrointestinal (24.2%) serosal surfaces. In 12.9% of the cases there was a granularity to the intestinal serosa. Hemorrhages in the leptomeninges and in the substance of the brain were observed in 9.7% of the cases. Hepatic gross changes included moderately enlarged and more friable livers with marked lobular pattern, congestion and multifocal pale or hemorrhagic foci of necrosis. Films and strands of fibrin covered the hepatic surface in 20.4% of the cases and in 27.8% of the cases the gall bladder was thickened by edema. Zonal or randomly distributed multifocal hepatic necrosis (93.5%) associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies were the most consistent microscopic findings. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the liver in every case and their detection was the criterium for confirmation of the diagnosis. The most significant microscopic extra-hepatic lesions included hemorrhages and intranuclear inclusion bodies in endothelial and reticuloendothelial cells of the renal glomeruli (50.0%) lymph nodes (47.8%), brain (27.8%), tonsils (25.0%) and spleen (10.0%).

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Inkelmann M.A., Rozza D.B., Fighera R.A., Kommers G.D., Graça D.L., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Infectious canine hepatitis: 62 cases.] Hepatite infecciosa canina: 62 casos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(8):325-332. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Necropsy reports from 5,361 dogs necropsied over a 43-year period (1964-2006) were reviewed in search for cases of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH). Sixty two (1.2%) cases of the disease were found. Most of the 62 affected dogs (91.9%,) were 2-year-old or less. Clinical signs were recorded in the necropsy files of 45 ICH affected dogs and included anorexia (55.6%), apathy (35.6%), diarrhea (35.6%) (often with blood [43,8%]), neurological signs (33.3%), vomiting (26.7%), petechiae and echymosis in the mucous membranes and/or skin (24.4%), hypothermia (20.0%), abdominal pain (15.6%), icterus (13.3%), enlargement and congestion of the tonsils (11.1%), fever (11.1%) and ascites (6.7%). The clinical courses lasted from few hours to 15 days. The most frequent necropsy findings included hepatic changes (87.1%), edematous, congested and hemorrhagic lymph nodes (51.6%), bloodstained fluid, clear fluid or whole blood in the abdominal cavity (35.5%), and petechial or paint-brush hemorrhages over the pleural (27.4%) and gastrointestinal (24.2%) serosal surfaces. In 12.9% of the cases there was a granularity to the intestinal serosa. Hemorrhages in the leptomeninges and in the substance of the brain were observed in 9.7% of the cases. Hepatic gross changes included moderately enlarged and more friable livers with marked lobular pattern, congestion and multifocal pale or hemorrhagic foci of necrosis. Films and strands of fibrin covered the hepatic surface in 20.4% of the cases and in 27.8% of the cases the gall bladder was thickened by edema. Zonal or randomly distributed multifocal hepatic necrosis (93.5%) associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies were the most consistent microscopic findings. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the liver in every case and their detection was the criterium for confirmation of the diagnosis. The most significant microscopic extra-hepatic lesions included hemorrhages and intranuclear inclusion bodies in endothelial and reticuloendothelial cells of the renal glomeruli (50.0%) lymph nodes (47.8%), brain (27.8%), tonsils (25.0%) and spleen (10.0%).


#8 - Aspectos clinicopatológicos de 620 casos neurológicos de cinomose em cães, 215-220

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Silva M.C., Fighera R.A., Brum J.S., Graça D.L., Kommers G.D., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Clinicopathological features in 620 neurological cases of canine distemper.] Aspectos clinicopatológicos de 620 casos neurológicos de cinomose em cães. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(5):215-220. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br The files of 5,361 necropsies performed in dogs in the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria during 1965-2006 were reviewed in search of cases of canine distemper. Six hundred and eighty three cases (12.7%) of the disease were found, 620 of which had neurological signs. From those 620, the following data on each case were retrieved: age, clinical signs, histopathology and concomitance or not of another disease. Age groups were classified as puppies (up to 1 year of age), adults (from 1 to 9 years) and aged (from 10 years on). In 565 out of the 620 (91.1%) neurological cases of canine distemper, histopathological brain changes were observed and in 554 of those 565 the age was registered in the files with following age group distribution: 45.9% of puppies, 51.4% of adults, and 2.7% of aged dogs. Neurological clinical signs encompassed a large spectrum of motor, postural and behavioral disturbances which could occur together or individually. Most frequent clinical signs were myoclonus (38.4%), motor incoordination (25.0%), seizures (18.5%), and paraplegia (13.4%). In 98.4% of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes in the brain demyelination, non-suppurative encephalitis or a combination of these two were found. Intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in different brain cells of 343 of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes. In 170 (49.6%) the cellular type bearing the inclusions was not mentioned in the file and in the remaining cases the inclusions were seen in astrocytes (94.8% of the cases), neurons (3.5%), oligodendrocytes (1.1%), and ependyma cells (0.6%). Taking in consideration the type of lesions and the age groups, cases with combined demyelination and non-suppurative encephalitis occurred in 40.0% of the puppies, 51.2% of the adult dogs and 72.7% of the aged dogs. Demyelination alone occurred in 48.4% of the puppies, 41.3% of the adults and in 35.7% of the aged dogs. Non-suppurative encephalitis alone occurred 11.6% of the puppies, 7.5% of the adults and in 7.1% of the aged dogs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Silva M.C., Fighera R.A., Brum J.S., Graça D.L., Kommers G.D., Irigoyen L.F. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Clinicopathological features in 620 neurological cases of canine distemper.] Aspectos clinicopatológicos de 620 casos neurológicos de cinomose em cães. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(5):215-220. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br The files of 5,361 necropsies performed in dogs in the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria during 1965-2006 were reviewed in search of cases of canine distemper. Six hundred and eighty three cases (12.7%) of the disease were found, 620 of which had neurological signs. From those 620, the following data on each case were retrieved: age, clinical signs, histopathology and concomitance or not of another disease. Age groups were classified as puppies (up to 1 year of age), adults (from 1 to 9 years) and aged (from 10 years on). In 565 out of the 620 (91.1%) neurological cases of canine distemper, histopathological brain changes were observed and in 554 of those 565 the age was registered in the files with following age group distribution: 45.9% of puppies, 51.4% of adults, and 2.7% of aged dogs. Neurological clinical signs encompassed a large spectrum of motor, postural and behavioral disturbances which could occur together or individually. Most frequent clinical signs were myoclonus (38.4%), motor incoordination (25.0%), seizures (18.5%), and paraplegia (13.4%). In 98.4% of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes in the brain demyelination, non-suppurative encephalitis or a combination of these two were found. Intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in different brain cells of 343 of the 565 dogs with histopathological changes. In 170 (49.6%) the cellular type bearing the inclusions was not mentioned in the file and in the remaining cases the inclusions were seen in astrocytes (94.8% of the cases), neurons (3.5%), oligodendrocytes (1.1%), and ependyma cells (0.6%). Taking in consideration the type of lesions and the age groups, cases with combined demyelination and non-suppurative encephalitis occurred in 40.0% of the puppies, 51.2% of the adult dogs and 72.7% of the aged dogs. Demyelination alone occurred in 48.4% of the puppies, 41.3% of the adults and in 35.7% of the aged dogs. Non-suppurative encephalitis alone occurred 11.6% of the puppies, 7.5% of the adults and in 7.1% of the aged dogs.


#9 - Surtos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e patológicos, p.239-249

Abstract in English:

Rodrigues A., Fighera R.A., Souza T.M., Schild A.L., Soares M.P., Milano J. & Barros C.S.L. 2005. [Outbreaks of trypanosomiasis in horses by Trypanosoma evansi in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects.] Surtos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e patológicos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(4):239-249. Depto Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Cases of trypanosomiasis by Trypanosoma evansi were diagnosed in horses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 2003 and 2004. In one stud farm (Farm A) with 125 horses, 52 died. Additionally, around 80 mares were sent to Farm A to be bred. Of those, 66 became ill and 56 died after being returned to their farms of origin. Twenty one horses clinically affected by the disease were observed. Clinical signs included loss of weight (despite voracious appetite), lethargy, incoordination and instability of hindlimbs, atrophy of the large muscles of the hindlimbs, muscle weakness and paleness of mucosae. Specimens of T. evansi were detected in the blood drawn from four affected horses. Normocytic normochromic anemia with PCVs ranging from 15 to 31%, leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis associated to large atypical lymphocytes was observed in several affected horses. High levels of antibodies against T. evansi were detected in the serum of six horses from Farm A. Eight horses presented encephalic neurological signs such as circling, ataxia, blindness, excitation, falls, listlessness, proprioception deficits and head tilt. One horse assumed a “dog-seating position”. Necropsy findings included muscle atrophy, enlargement and lymphoid hyperplasia of the spleen and lymphnodes, edema and softening of the white and grey matter of the brain. Histologically, an overwhelming necrotizing panencephalitis was observed in the seven horses with encephalic signs. This panencephalitis was characterized by marked edema, demyelination and necrosis and perivascular infiltrates of 6-10 layers of lymphocytes and plasm cells affecting both the white and gray matter. Several plasm cells in the inflammatory infiltrate contained numerous eosinophilic globules in their cytoplasm (Mott cells). Similar histological lesions were observed in the spinal cord of the horse with the “dog-seating position”. The brains of five horses with the encephalic signs were submitted to immunohistochemistry stain by the streptavidin-biotin technique. In all of those five brains moderate to abundant specimens of T. evansi in the perivascular spaces and neuropile were marked by the specific antibody. Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of equine trypanosomiasis caused by T. evansi are discussed.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Rodrigues A., Fighera R.A., Souza T.M., Schild A.L., Soares M.P., Milano J. & Barros C.S.L. 2005. [Outbreaks of trypanosomiasis in horses by Trypanosoma evansi in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects.] Surtos de tripanossomíase por Trypanosoma evansi em eqüinos no Rio Grande do Sul: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, hematológicos e patológicos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(4):239-249. Depto Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Cases of trypanosomiasis by Trypanosoma evansi were diagnosed in horses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 2003 and 2004. In one stud farm (Farm A) with 125 horses, 52 died. Additionally, around 80 mares were sent to Farm A to be bred. Of those, 66 became ill and 56 died after being returned to their farms of origin. Twenty one horses clinically affected by the disease were observed. Clinical signs included loss of weight (despite voracious appetite), lethargy, incoordination and instability of hindlimbs, atrophy of the large muscles of the hindlimbs, muscle weakness and paleness of mucosae. Specimens of T. evansi were detected in the blood drawn from four affected horses. Normocytic normochromic anemia with PCVs ranging from 15 to 31%, leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis associated to large atypical lymphocytes was observed in several affected horses. High levels of antibodies against T. evansi were detected in the serum of six horses from Farm A. Eight horses presented encephalic neurological signs such as circling, ataxia, blindness, excitation, falls, listlessness, proprioception deficits and head tilt. One horse assumed a “dog-seating position”. Necropsy findings included muscle atrophy, enlargement and lymphoid hyperplasia of the spleen and lymphnodes, edema and softening of the white and grey matter of the brain. Histologically, an overwhelming necrotizing panencephalitis was observed in the seven horses with encephalic signs. This panencephalitis was characterized by marked edema, demyelination and necrosis and perivascular infiltrates of 6-10 layers of lymphocytes and plasm cells affecting both the white and gray matter. Several plasm cells in the inflammatory infiltrate contained numerous eosinophilic globules in their cytoplasm (Mott cells). Similar histological lesions were observed in the spinal cord of the horse with the “dog-seating position”. The brains of five horses with the encephalic signs were submitted to immunohistochemistry stain by the streptavidin-biotin technique. In all of those five brains moderate to abundant specimens of T. evansi in the perivascular spaces and neuropile were marked by the specific antibody. Epidemiological, clinical, hematological, and pathological aspects of equine trypanosomiasis caused by T. evansi are discussed.


#10 - Febre catarral maligna em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia, p.97-105

Abstract in English:

Rech R.R., Schild A.L., Driemeier D., Garmatz S.L., Oliveira F.N., Riet-Correa F. & Barros C.S.L. 2005. [Malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology.] Febre catarral maligna em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(2):97-105. Depto Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br The epidemiology, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings in cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in cattle from 15 farms in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1973 to 2003, are described. In 9 instances (60%) the disease occurred as sporadic cases affecting 1-3 cattle whereas in six farms (40%) MCF occurred as epizootics involving several cattle in each affected herd. Morbidity rates ranged from 2.4% to 20% and lethality rates were 83.3% and 100%. Cattle of all ages and both sexes were affected. Where the information was available (9 farms) sheep were in contact with affected cattle and cases of MCF occurred more frequently in spring and summer. Clinical courses were acute or subacute and clinical signs included fever, nasal and ocular discharges, conjunctivitis, drooling, hematuria, necrosis and blunting of buccal papillae, enlargement of lymph nodes, diarrhea and neurological disturbances. Necropsy findings included opaque corneas, reddening, erosions and ulcerations in several mucous membranes of the alimentary, respiratory and urogenital tracts, and the conjunctiva; enlargement and haemorrhage of lymph nodes and multiple white foci in the renal cortices and in the hepatic portal triads. Crustous dermatitis was observed in some cases. Main histopathological findings included vasculitis, necrosis of the surface epithelia and accumulation of inflammatory cells in several organs. Vasculitis were associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the medial layer of arteries and inflammatory cells included lymphoblasts, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Rech R.R., Schild A.L., Driemeier D., Garmatz S.L., Oliveira F.N., Riet-Correa F. & Barros C.S.L. 2005. [Malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: Epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology.] Febre catarral maligna em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(2):97-105. Depto Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br The epidemiology, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings in cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) occurring in cattle from 15 farms in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1973 to 2003, are described. In 9 instances (60%) the disease occurred as sporadic cases affecting 1-3 cattle whereas in six farms (40%) MCF occurred as epizootics involving several cattle in each affected herd. Morbidity rates ranged from 2.4% to 20% and lethality rates were 83.3% and 100%. Cattle of all ages and both sexes were affected. Where the information was available (9 farms) sheep were in contact with affected cattle and cases of MCF occurred more frequently in spring and summer. Clinical courses were acute or subacute and clinical signs included fever, nasal and ocular discharges, conjunctivitis, drooling, hematuria, necrosis and blunting of buccal papillae, enlargement of lymph nodes, diarrhea and neurological disturbances. Necropsy findings included opaque corneas, reddening, erosions and ulcerations in several mucous membranes of the alimentary, respiratory and urogenital tracts, and the conjunctiva; enlargement and haemorrhage of lymph nodes and multiple white foci in the renal cortices and in the hepatic portal triads. Crustous dermatitis was observed in some cases. Main histopathological findings included vasculitis, necrosis of the surface epithelia and accumulation of inflammatory cells in several organs. Vasculitis were associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the medial layer of arteries and inflammatory cells included lymphoblasts, lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV