Resultado da pesquisa (14)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa broiler chickens

#11 - Occurrence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and factors associated with transmission in broiler chickens and laying hens in different raising systems, 32(3):231-236

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Millar P.R., Alves F.M.X., Teixeira V.Q., Vicente R.T., Menezes E.M., Sobreiro L.G., Pereira V.L.A. & Amendoeira M.R.R. 2012. Occurrence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and factors associated with transmission in broiler chickens and laying hens in different raising systems. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(3):231-236. Laboratório de Toxoplasmose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil. E-mail: amendoei@ioc.fiocruz.br Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence and identify the risk factors associated with transmission of T. gondii to chickens raised in different systems (free-ranged and confined) to produce eggs or meat. The 810 animals were allocated in two experimental groups according to the production system purpose: 460 broiler chickens (Group 1) and 350 layer chickens (Group 2). In order to analyze the possible factors involved in T. gondii infection in the chickens, an epidemiological questionnaire was developed for all properties.The serological detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was performed by Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFAT) and by Enzime Linked Imunossorbent Assay (ELISA). Since the agreement index (kappa) between these two serological techniques was considered high, 21.2% of the 810 animals were considered reactive. In Group 1, 12.2% (56/460) were positive, while in the Group 2 the positivity rate was 33.1% (116/350). The production system may be influencing the seropositivity of the animals in both groups. However, only in Group 2 it was possible to notice a statistically significant relationship between the breeding system and the frequency of positive sera. This result indicates that, at least for laying hens, the production system is directly involved in T. gondii infection. The contact with cats in Group 1 did not influence the distribution of seroreactive animals, but in Group 2 a significant relationship was observed. The occurrence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was high in both groups (broiler and posture chickens). Free-ranged chickens raised for egg production proved to be the most exposed group to the T. gondii infection. This can be related to the fact that these animals stay for longer periods in the farms, in direct contact with possibly contaminated soil by the presence of domestic cats.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Millar P.R., Alves F.M.X., Teixeira V.Q., Vicente R.T., Menezes E.M., Sobreiro L.G., Pereira V.L.A. & Amendoeira M.R.R. 2012. Occurrence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii and factors associated with transmission in broiler chickens and laying hens in different raising systems. Ocorrência da infecção por Toxoplasma gon- dii e fatores associados à sua transmissão em aves de corte e postura produzidas em diferentes tipos de criação. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(3):231-236. Laboratório de Toxoplasmose, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil. E-mail: amendoei@ioc.fiocruz.br A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo protozo- ário Toxoplasma gondii. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e identificar os fatores de risco associados à transmissão de T. gondii para frangos criados em diferentes sistemas (caipira e confinado) para produzir ovos ou carne. Os 810 animais foram divididos em dois grupos experimentais de acordo com o propósito do sistema de produção: 460 frangos de corte (Grupo 1) e 350 galinhas poedeiras (Grupo 2). A fim de analisar os possíveis fatores envolvidos na infecção pelo T. gondii nas galinhas, um questionário epidemiológico foi respondido por todos os proprietários. A detecção sorológica de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii foi realizada pela técnica de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI) e Enzime Linked Assay Imunossorbent (ELISA). Uma vez que o índice de concordância (kappa) entre estas duas técnicas sorológicas foi considerada alta, 21,2% dos 810 animais foram considerados reativos. No Grupo 1, 12,2% (56/460) foram positivos, enquanto no Grupo 2 a taxa de positividade foi de 33,1% (116/350). O sistema de produção pode estar influenciando a soropositividade dos animais em ambos os grupos. No entanto, apenas no Grupo 2, foi possível notar uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre o sistema de produção e da freqüência de soros positivos. Este resultado indica que, pelo menos para as galinhas poedeiras, o sistema de produção está diretamente envolvido na infecção pelo T. gondii. O contato com os gatos no Grupo 1 não influenciou a distribuição dos animais sororreagentes, mas no Grupo 2 uma relação estatisticamente significativa foi observada. A ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii foi alta nos dois grupos (frangos de corte e postura). Galinhas cairpiras criadas para produção de ovos provou ser o grupo mais exposto à infecção T. gondii. Isto pode estar relacionado ao fato de que estes animais ficam por períodos mais longos nas fazendas, em contato direto com o solo possivelmente contaminado pela presença de gatos domésticos.


#12 - Microbiology, histology and immunology evaluation of broiler chickens challenged against Salmonella Enteritidis and Minnesota and treated with organic acids, 32(1):22-31

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Pickler L., Hayashi R.M., Lourenço M.C., Miglino L.B., Caron L.F., Beirão B.C.B., Silva A.V.F. & Santin E. 2012. [Microbiology, histology and immunology evaluation of broiler chickens challenged against Salmonella Enteritidis and Minnesota and treated with organic acids.] Avaliação microbiológica, histológica e imunológica de frangos de corte desafiados com Salmonella Enteritidis e Minnesota e tratados com ácidos orgânicos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(1):27-36. Laboratório de Microbiologia e Ornitopatologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários 1540, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brazil. E-mail: larissapickler@yahoo.com.br Two experiments were carried out to evaluate effectiveness of organic acids against Salmonella enterica enterica serovars Enteritidis (SE) and Minnesota (SM) in broilers. In the first experiment three treatments were evaluated: T1 - feeding with organic acids, T2 - feeding with organic acids and organic acids in drink water, and T3 - control group. All animals were oral challenged with SE. Organic acids in diet (T1) and organic acids in diet and drink water (T2) reduced the shadding of Salmonella in crop and cecum 7 days post challenged with SE and reduced the CD3+ cells in jejunal mucosa of broilers. In the second experiment four treatments were evaluated, T1 - control group, T2 - control group oral challenged with Salmonella Minnesota (SM); T3 - oral challenged animals with SM and treated with organic acids in diet; T4 - oral challenged animals with SM and treated with organic acids in diet and in drink water. Organic acids in diet (T3) and organic acids in diet and in drink water (T4) reduced the shadding of SM in crop of challenged broilers, 7 days post inoculation The use of organic acids in diet and in water was more effective to control SE than SM.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Pickler L., Hayashi R.M., Lourenço M.C., Miglino L.B., Caron L.F., Beirão B.C.B., Silva A.V.F. & Santin E. 2012. [Microbiology, histology and immunology evaluation of broiler chickens challenged against Salmonella Enteritidis and Minnesota and treated with organic acids.] Avaliação microbiológica, histológica e imunológica de frangos de corte desafiados com Salmonella Enteritidis e Minnesota e tratados com ácidos orgânicos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(1):27-36. Laboratório de Microbiologia e Ornitopatologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários 1540, Curitiba, PR 80035-050, Brazil. E-mail: larissapickler@yahoo.com.br Dois experimentos foram desenvolvidos para avaliar a eficiência de ácidos orgânicos frente a Salmonella enterica enterica sorovar Enteritidis (SE) e Minnesota (SM) em frangos. No primeiro experimento foram avaliados 3 tratamentos: T1 - ração adicionada de ácido orgânico, T2 - ração adicionada de ácido orgânico e ácido orgânico na água de bebida, T3 - grupo controle. Todos os animais foram inoculados com SE, via oral. A utilização de ácidos orgânicos na ração (T1) e na ração e na água (T2) diminuíram a excreção de Salmonella no papo e no ceco 7 dias pós inoculação com SE e houve redução de células CD3+ no jejuno dos frangos. No segundo experimento foram avaliados 4 tratamentos sendo T1 - controle, T2 - controle inoculado via oral com Salmonella Minnesota (SM), T3 - animais inoculados via oral com SM e ácidos orgânicos na ração e T4 - animais inoculados via oral com SM e ácidos orgânicos na ração e na água de bebida. Ácidos orgânicos a ração (T3) e na ração e na água (T4) reduziram a excreção de SM em papo de frangos de corte desafiados, 7 dias após inoculação. O uso de ácidos orgânicos na ração e na ração e na água foram mais eficientes em reduzir SE do que SM.


#13 - Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl) against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens, 31(5):425-429

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Manzoor Z., Munawar S.H., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl) against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(5):425-429. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad - 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm) and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Manzoor Z., Munawar S.H., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl) against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(5):425-429. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad - 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm) and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.


#14 - Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella, 31(2):99-103

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Munawar S.H., Manzoor Z., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(2):99-103. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10–19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Abbas R.Z., Munawar S.H., Manzoor Z., Iqbal Z., Khan M.N., Saleemi M.K., Zia M.A. & Yousaf A. 2011. Anticoccidial effects of acetic acid on performance and pathogenic parameters in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(2):99-103. Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faislabad 38040, Pakistan. E-mail: raouaf@hotmail.com The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of the different concentrations of the acetic acid in the broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. A total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) of acetic acid and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm) were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10–19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. All the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts at the 12th day of age except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial effect was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age) parameters. Among acetic acid medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 3% acetic acid followed by 2% and 1% acetic acid medicated groups. Amprolium and 3% acetic acid were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) challenge. In summary, acetic acid has the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. Concentration-dependent anticoccidial effect of acetic acid suggests that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible maximum safe levels of acetic acid with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.


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