Resultado da pesquisa (6)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa desmama

#1 - Influence of organic chromium supplementation on the performance of beef calves undergoing weaning-related stress

Abstract in English:

Dietary chromium supplementation before, during, and after weaning was conducted to evaluate the hypothesis that chromium supplementation could reduce weaning-induced cortisol release in beef calves. We examined the effects of chromium supplementation in 150 crossbred calves (male and female) between five and six months of age. The calves were randomly divided by sex and breed into two equal homogeneous groups (n=75). One group was used as the control, and the other experimental group received supplementation with 0.9mg of chromium carbon-amino-phospho-chelate per 100kg BW. The chromium supplement was mixed with mineral salt for the consumption of 0.1% of BW, and the supplement was administered via creep feeding 60 days before and 60 days after forced weaning. Calves were weighed, and their blood and urine samples were obtained at four time-points: T0 (60 days before weaning), T1 (at weaning), T2 (48 hours after weaning), and T3 (60 days after weaning). Blood samples were used to determine chromium, cortisol, total protein, and albumin concentrations, and urine samples were used to determine urinary creatinine and chromium levels. Cumulative weight gain was higher in calves supplemented with chromium before weaning and during the experiment (P<0.05). In addition, weaning-related stress caused an increase in chromium excretion in the urine, and chromium supplementation reduced stress, which resulted in lower cortisol and total protein levels during weaning.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a hipótese de que a suplementação dietética com cromo antes, durante e após a desmama possa diminuir a concentração de cortisol causado por este processo em bezerros de corte. Para tal, foram utilizados 150 bezerros mestiços, machos e fêmeas, entre cinco e seis meses de idade. Os animais foram divididos randomicamente por sexo e grupo genético em dois grupos homogêneos (n=75), um mantido como controle e outro suplementado com 0,9mg de carboaminofosfoquelato de cromo/100 kg PV misturado a um sal proteinado para ser consumido na base de 0,1% do PV via creep feeding, no decorrer de 60 dias antes e 60 dias após à desmama forçada. Os animais foram pesados e foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas e urinárias no M0 (60 dias antes da desmama), M1 (desmama), M2 (48 horas após a desmama) e M3 (60 dias após à desmama) para determinação de cromo, cortisol, proteína total e albumina no sangue e da concentração urinária de creatinina e cromo. O ganho acumulado de peso foi superior nos bezerros suplementados com cromo antes da desmama e no decorrer de todo o experimento (P<0,05). A suplementação com cromo reduziu os teores de cortisol e de proteína total durante a desmama. O estresse da desmama provocou aumento da excreção de cromo pela urina.


#2 - Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from piglets with post-weaning diarrhea in Southern Brazil and classification of the samples according to fecal consistency, 36(4):253-257

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Sato J.P.H., Takeuti K.L., Andrade M.R., Koerich P.K.V., Tagliari V., Bernardi M.L., Cardoso M.R.I. & Barcellos D.E.S.N. 2016. Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from piglets with post-weaning diarrhea in Southern Brazil and classification of the samples according to fecal consistency. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(4):253-257. Setor de Suínos, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davidbarcellos@terra.com.br The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and association of virulence factors of Escherichia (E.) coli isolated from weaned piglets with diarrhea and to correlate it with fecal consistency. A total of 152 rectal swabs were collected from 25-40 day-old piglets with diarrhea, in farms of Southern Brazil. Phenotypical and molecular techniques were used for bacterial isolation, characterization and classification of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) pathotypes. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the frequency of virulence factors and virotypes, of fimbriae F4, F5, F6, F18, F41 and toxins LT, STa, STb and STx2e. Out of 456 E. coli isolates, 287 (62.9%) samples showed significant growth of E. coli. Among them, 194 (67.6%) samples showed at least one virulence factor, indicating that ETEC is an important etiological agent of diarrhea in weaned piglets. Higher frequencies were found of fimbria F4 and F18 and enterotoxins LT, STa and STb. Significant association was found to F4, LT, STa and STb; between F18 and STa and STx2e; between F5 and LT, STa and STb. The most frequent virotypes were F18-STa, F4-LT-STa-STb, F4-STa, F4-LT-STb and F18-STa-STx2e. Beta-hemolysis was observed in 47.4% of samples and there was significant association between hemolytic samples and virulence factors F4, F18, STa and STx2e. Regarding fecal consistency, there was significant association of liquid feces and F4 fimbria, STa toxin and virotypes F4-STa and F4-F5-LT-STa-STb. Since there was significant association of ETEC and liquid feces in nursery piglets, it is important to prioritize the sampling of liquid feces for the diagnosis etiologic cause of diarrhea.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Sato J.P.H., Takeuti K.L., Andrade M.R., Koerich P.K.V., Tagliari V., Bernardi M.L., Cardoso M.R.I. & Barcellos D.E.S.N. 2016. Virulence profiles of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from piglets with post-weaning diarrhea in Southern Brazil and classification of the samples according to fecal consistency. [Perfis de virulência de Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica isoladas de leitões desmamados com diarreia do Sul do Brasil e classificação das amostras de acordo com a consistência fecal.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(4):253-257. Setor de Suínos, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 91540-000, Brazil. E-mail: davidbarcellos@terra.com.br O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência e associação de fatores de virulência de Escherichia (E.) coli isoladas de leitões desmamados com diarreia e correlacioná-la com consistência fecal. Suabes retais foram coletados em leitões com 25-40 dias de idade com sinal clínico de diarreia, em granjas do Sul do Brasil, totalizando 456 amostras. Foram utilizadas técnicas fenotípicas e moleculares para isolamento bacteriano, caracterização e classificação de patotipos de E. coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC). A análise estatística foi realizada para determinar a frequência de fatores de virulência e virotipos, de fímbrias F4, F5, F6, F18, F41 e toxinas LT, STa, STB e STx2e. Duzentas e oitenta e sete (62,9%) amostras apresentaram crescimento significativo de E. coli. Entre os quais, 194 (67,6%) amostras apresentaram pelo menos um fator de virulência, indicando que ETEC é um importante agente etiológico de diarreia em leitões desmamados. As frequências mais elevadas foram encontradas para as fímbrias F4 e F18 e enterotoxinas LT, STa e STb. Associação significativa foi encontrada para F4, LT, STa e STb; entre F18 e STa e STx2e; entre F5 e LT, STa e STb. Os virotipos mais frequentes foram F18-STa, F4-LT-STa-STb, F4-STa, F4-LT-STb e F18-STa-STx2e. Beta-hemólise foi observada em 47,4% das amostras e houve associação significativa entre amostras hemolíticas e fatores de virulência F4, F18, STa e STx2e. Quanto consistência fecal, houve associação significativa de fezes líquidas e fímbria F4, toxina STa e virotipos F4-STa e F4-F5-LT-STa-STb. A associação significativa da ETEC e fezes líquidas em leitões de creche, é importante para priorizar a amostragem de fezes com essa consistência para no diagnóstico etiológico da diarreia.


#3 - Serum protein profile in Arabian foals recently weaned or at more than thirty days after weaning, 31(Supl.1):89-93

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Favero D.H.M.F., Dias D.P.M., Feringer-Junior W.H., Bernardi N.S. & Lacerda-Neto J.C. 2011. [Serum protein profile in Arabian foals recently weaned or at more than thirty days after weaning.] Proteínas séricas de potros da raça Puro Sangue Árabe recém-desmamados ou com mais de trinta dias de desmame. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(Supl.1):89-93. Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: jlacerda@fcav.unesp.br The perinatal phase of foal development is one of the most challenger period for the immune system. The present study has analyzed serum protein profile, considering variables related to immunity in foals at the perinatal phase, verifying passive immunity transfer. The group 1 (G1) contained eight foals evaluated one day after weaning, and group 2 (G2) included twenty foals at more than thirty days after weaning. Total protein concentration was determined by means of refractometry. The concentration of serum proteins was determined through sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test (P<0.05). IgA concentration showed difference (P<0.05) between the two studied groups, however data were within adult healthy horses normal values. IgG didn’t show statistical difference (P>0.05). The cellular immunity establishment occurs in the neonatal phase, in foals that suckled colostrum and milk properly. The present study showed differences in serum protein profile, considering variables related to immunity, in foals immediately after weaning comparing to foals at more than 30 days after weaning. According to the observed values, we conclude that foals, even early weaned, showed proper passive immunity tranfer.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Favero D.H.M.F., Dias D.P.M., Feringer-Junior W.H., Bernardi N.S. & Lacerda-Neto J.C. 2011. [Serum protein profile in Arabian foals recently weaned or at more than thirty days after weaning.] Proteínas séricas de potros da raça Puro Sangue Árabe recém-desmamados ou com mais de trinta dias de desmame. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(Supl.1):89-93. Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: jlacerda@fcav.unesp.br A fase perinatal do desenvolvimento constitui um dos períodos de vida mais desafiadores para o sistema imunológico dos potros. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o perfil protéico sérico de parâmetros relacionados à imunidade de equinos jovens no período perinatal, verificando-se a transferência de imunidade passiva. Oito animais desmamados há um dia, formaram o Grupo 1 (G1), enquanto vinte animais desmamados há mais de trinta dias formaram o Grupo 2 (G2). A concentração sérica de proteína total foi determinada por refratometria. Para o fracionamento das proteínas, utilizou-se eletroforese em gel de acrilamida. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de medidas repetidas e ao teste Tukey (p<0,05) para comparação das médias. As concentrações de IgA apresentaram diferença (p<0,05) entre os grupos, porém os valores observados encontravam-se dentro do considerado normal para equinos adultos. Não houve diferença (p>0,05) nas concentrações de IgG. O estabelecimento adequado da imunidade celular ocorre durante a fase neonatal, nos animais que ingerem adequadamente o colostro e o leite. O presente estudo determinou diferenças no perfil protéico sérico de parâmetros relacionados à imunidade de equinos jovens no período imediato ao desmame, comparados com animais desmamados há mais de 30 dias. De acordo com os valores observados, concluiu-se que os animais, mesmo desmamados precocemente, obtiveram transferência adequada de imunidade passiva.


#4 - Surto de Circovirose (Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica de Suínos Desmamados) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, p.39-53

Abstract in English:

França T.N., Peixoto P.V., Brito M.F., Driemeier D., Mores N. & Zanella J. 2005. [Outbreak of Circovirosis (Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Surto de Circovirose (Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica de Suínos Desmamados) no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(1):39-53. Universidade Estácio de Sá, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Disciplina de Anatomia Patológica, Estrada Boca do Mato 850, Vargem Pequena, RJ 22783-320, Brazil. E-mail: ticianaf@uol.com.br The first outbreak of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in swine, which occurred in southeastern Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, is described. The disease, which affects mainly weaned about 4 month-old pigs, caused the death of at least 14 animals. The property, where the outbreak occurred, had inadequate sanitary and management conditions. Clinically the disease was characterized by wasting, poor development, cough, tachypnoea, dispnoea, diarrhoea, ataxia, tremors after stimulation, decubitus and convulsions. The course of the disease was acute or subacute. The most important post-mortem findings were enlarged lymphnodes, non-collapsed lungs, with consolidated areas mainly in the cranial lobes. Histological lesions consisted mainly of lymphohistiocytic infiltration with multinucleate giant cells in lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patches, kidney, lung and liver, depletion or lymphoid hyperplasia, as well as lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia and areas of secondary bronchopneumonia. The diagnosis was established through observations of the symptoms and typical lesions, and was confirmed by immunohistochemical examination and PCR. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of the outbreak of PMWS, because of the severe direct or indirect economical losses caused by the disease to the world pig industry.

Abstract in Portuguese:

França T.N., Peixoto P.V., Brito M.F., Driemeier D., Mores N. & Zanella J. 2005. [Outbreak of Circovirosis (Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Surto de Circovirose (Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica de Suínos Desmamados) no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(1):39-53. Universidade Estácio de Sá, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Disciplina de Anatomia Patológica, Estrada Boca do Mato 850, Vargem Pequena, RJ 22783-320, Brazil. E-mail: ticianaf@uol.com.br The first outbreak of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in swine, which occurred in southeastern Brazil, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, is described. The disease, which affects mainly weaned about 4 month-old pigs, caused the death of at least 14 animals. The property, where the outbreak occurred, had inadequate sanitary and management conditions. Clinically the disease was characterized by wasting, poor development, cough, tachypnoea, dispnoea, diarrhoea, ataxia, tremors after stimulation, decubitus and convulsions. The course of the disease was acute or subacute. The most important post-mortem findings were enlarged lymphnodes, non-collapsed lungs, with consolidated areas mainly in the cranial lobes. Histological lesions consisted mainly of lymphohistiocytic infiltration with multinucleate giant cells in lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer’s patches, kidney, lung and liver, depletion or lymphoid hyperplasia, as well as lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia and areas of secondary bronchopneumonia. The diagnosis was established through observations of the symptoms and typical lesions, and was confirmed by immunohistochemical examination and PCR. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of the outbreak of PMWS, because of the severe direct or indirect economical losses caused by the disease to the world pig industry.


#5 - The hornfly, Haematobia irritans: behaviour and damage caused in Nellore cows and pre-weaning calves, 22(3):109-113

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Bianchin I. & Alves R.G.O. 2002. [The hornfly, Haematobia irritans: behavior and damage caused in Nellore cows and pre-weaning calves.] Mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans: comportamento e danos em vacas e bezerros Nelore antes da desmama. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 22(3):109-113. Embrapa Gado de Corte, Rodovia BR 262 Km 4, Cx. Postal 154, Campo Grande, MS 79002-970, Brazil. The hornfly and tosses caused by it in Nellore cows and pre-weaning calves where studied, using two groups of 60 animals each, one group with a natural infestation and the other without hornfly, during four consecutive years. It was seen that the number of flies on the cows did not exceed an average of 80 flies/animal in all years of observation. The majority of the cows (83%) had few flies, whereas 17% had larger numbers. The calves were infested with few flies. Rainfall in excess of 100 mm during short periods diminished fly infestation. Weight gain in the cows without flies (treated with insecticides) as well as their calves was greater than in the control cows, but not statistically significant (P>0.05). Mean percentage pregnancy during the four years was 15% more in treated cows than the non-treated animals, and this difference was probably due to the infestation of the bulls.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Bianchin I. & Alves R.G.O. 2002. [The hornfly, Haematobia irritans: behavior and damage caused in Nellore cows and pre-weaning calves.] Mosca-dos-chifres, Haematobia irritans: comportamento e danos em vacas e bezerros Nelore antes da desmama. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 22(3):109-113. Embrapa Gado de Corte, Rodovia BR 262 Km 4, Cx. Postal 154, Campo Grande, MS 79002-970, Brazil. Estudaram-se o comportamentos e os danos causados pela mosca-dos-chifres em vacas e bezerros Nelore antes da desmama. Foram utilizados dois grupos de 60 animais cada um, sendo um grupo com infestação natural de moscas e o outro sem moscas, por quatro anos consecutivos. Observou-se que o número de moscas das vacas não ultrapassou a média de 80 moscas/animal, em todos os anos experimentais. A maioria das vacas (83%) apresentou poucas moscas, enquanto a minoria (17%) teve maior quantidade. Os bezerros foram pouco infestados pelas moscas. Chuvas acima de 100 mm em curto espaço de tempo diminuíram a infestação de moscas. O ganho de peso das vacas tratadas com inseticida (sem infestação por moscas) bem como os seus bezerros foi maior do que as vacas controle, porém não foi estatisticamente significativo (P>0,05). A percentagem média de prenhez, nos quatro anos, das vacas tratadas foi 15% superior a das não tratadas e esta diferença foi causada provavelmente pela infestação de moscas nos touros.


#6 - Effect of pigs diet protein levei and/or acidification in the Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhea

Abstract in English:

An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of preventing Escherichia coli post-weaning diarrhea reducing the protein level and/or acidifying the diet. Sixteen SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) Landrace piglets, 36 days old (weaning day) were used in four treatments (T) as follow: TA) control ration with 20% crude protein (CP); TB) ration similar to TA with 2% citric acid; TC) ration with 16% CP plus lisine up to 0.9%; and TD) ration similar to TC plus 2% citric acid. Rations were formulated with corn, soybean meal, minerals and vitamins. The pigs received the experimental diets from Do (weaning day) to D10 (slaughter day). All piglets were inoculated with 20 ml of E. coli culture 0141 K85 with 109 CFU/ml on the day D3 and D4. The parameters analysed were, occurrence of diarrhea, faeces elimination and intestinal colonization with the E. coli sample inoculated, gastrointestinal content pH and small intestine histology. The addition of citric acid (TB) as well as CP reduction (TC) in the diet caused a benefic effect on the E. coli diarrhea. This effect was more evident with the CP reduction and addition of the acid simultaneously (TD). The diarrhea was prevented, probably, by the reduction of stomach and jejunum pH and by avoiding an exaggerated E. coli multiplication in the intestinal content.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Estudou-se experimentalmente a possibilidade de se prevenir a diarréia pós-desmama por Escherichia coli através da redução da proteína e/ou acidificação da dieta. Utilizaram-se 16 leitões Landrace SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) com 35 dias de idade (dia da desmama), distribuídos em quatro tratamentos (T): TA - ração controle com 20% de PB; T B - ração do TA com 2% de ácido cítrico; TC - ração com 16% PB mais lisina até nível de 0,9%; TD - ração do TC mais·2% do ácido cítrico. As rações foram formuladas com milho, farelo de soja, minerais e vitaminas. Os leitões receberam as dietas experimentais do D0 (dia da desmama) até D10 (dia do sacrifício). Todos os leitões foram inoculados com 20 ml de um cultivo de E. coli 0141 K85 contendo 109 UFC/ml, nos dias D3 e D4. Os parâmetros analisados foram: ocorrência de diarréia, eliminação nas fezes e colonização intestinal da amostra de E. coli inoculada, pH do conteúdo gastrointestinal e histologia do intestino delgado. Tanto a adição do ácido cítrico (TB) como a redução da PB (TC) na dieta tiveram efeito benéfico na ocorrência da diarréia por E. coli. Este efeito mostrou-se mais evidente com a redução da PB e adição do ácido simultaneamente (T D). A diarréia foi prevenida, possivelmente pela redução do pH do estômago e jejuno e por evitar a multiplicação exagerada de E. coli no conteúdo intestinal.


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