Resultado da pesquisa (5)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Blackleg

#1 - Clostridial diseases diagnosed in cattle from the South of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A forty-year survey (1978-2018) and a brief review of the literature

Abstract in English:

Clostridial diseases are important causes of livestock losses in the southern Rio Grande do Sul. Since 1978 annual surveys conducted at the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (LRD-UFPel) have shown that clostridial diseases represent 10.40% of the bacterial diseases diagnosed in cattle and 1.65% of all diseases diagnosis in cattle over a 40-year period. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of the clostridial diseases diagnosed in cattle from January 1978 to December 2018 at the LRD-UFPel in the hopes that it will constitute a useful guide for field veterinary practitioners and interested farmers. We assessed and review the necropsy protocols of 6,736 cattle; these necropsies were performed either by LRD-UFPel faculty or by field veterinary practitioners; 111 outbreaks (1.65%) were diagnosed as clostridial disease, distributed as follows: 35 outbreaks of tetanus, 34 of blackleg, 23 of bacillary hemoglobinuria, 11 of malignant edema (gas gangrene), and eight of botulism. Approximately 904, from a total of 42,480 cattle at risk, died in these outbreaks.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Clostridioses são doenças produzidas por alguma das espécies do gênero Clostridium e são importantes causas de perdas pecuárias no sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisas anuais realizadas no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD-UFPel) desde 1978 demonstraram que as clostridioses representaram 11,1% das doenças bacterianas diagnosticadas em bovinos e 1,65% de todos os diagnósticos de doenças em bovinos ao longo de 40 anos. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar os aspectos clínicos, epidemiológicos e patológicos das clostridioses diagnosticadas de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 2018, pelo LRD/UFPel com a intenção de que esse trabalho possa servir de guia útil para os veterinários de campo e fazendeiros interessados. Foram avaliados e revisados os protocolos de necropsia de 6.736 bovinos; essas necropsias foram realizadas pelo pessoal do LRD/UFPel ou por veterinários de campo. Cento e quatro (1,16%) casos foram diagnosticados como clostridioses, distribuídos da seguinte forma: 35 surtos de tétano, 34 de cartbúnculo sintomático, 23 de hemoglobinúria bacilar, 11 de edema maligno (gangrena gasosa) e oito de botulismo. Aproximadamente 904, de um total de 42.480 bovinos sob-risco, morreram nesses surtos.


#2 - Blackleg in a free-range brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira)

Abstract in English:

A case of blackleg in a brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) associated with trauma from being hit by a car in southern Rio Grande do Sul is reported. The clinical signs included fever, dehydration and lethargy that worsened progressively until 36 hours after the accident, when the animal died. In the fore right limb, there was a comminuted closed fracture of the radius and ulna but no skin wounds were observed. Grossly, the musculature of the pelvic limbs presented hemorrhage, edema and emphysema. Microscopically, the muscles of both rear legs had necrosis, edema, hemorrhage and mild inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils. Clostridium chauvoei was cultured from affected skeletal muscles, and it was also detected by immunohistochemistry, confirming a diagnosis of blackleg. The overlapping habitat of cattle and brown brocket deer is proposed as a predisposing factor in this case and alerts to spillover cases maybe happening in this region. In addition, blackleg should be included as differential diagnoses of deer with post-traumatic myositis.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Descreve-se um caso de carbúnculo sintomático em um veado-virá (Mazama gouazoubira), macho, jovem, resgatado após atropelamento em uma rodovia na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O cervídeo apresentou febre, desidratação e letargia, progredindo para a morte em 36 horas. No membro torácico direito foi observado fratura cominutiva fechada de rádio e ulna sem a presença de feridas perfurantes. Na necropsia foi observada hemorragia, edema e enfisema na musculatura dos membros pélvicos. Microscopicamente, os músculos dos membros pélvicos apresentaram necrose, edema, hemorragia e discreto infiltrado inflamatório neutrofílico. Houve o isolamento de Clostridium chauvoei e marcação positiva na técnica de IHQ com anticorpo monoclonal anti-C. chauvoei, confirmando o diagnóstico de carbúnculo sintomático. A sobreposição de habitat entre bovinos domésticos e cervídeos pode ser um fator de risco para esta doença e chama a atenção para casos de “spillover” que podem estar ocorrendo na região. Adicionalmente, sugere-se que o carbúnculo sintomático seja incluído nos diagnósticos diferenciais de cervídeos que apresentam miosite pós-traumática.


#3 - Blackleg in cattle in the state Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: 59 cases

Abstract in English:

This study aimed to review cases of blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei infection) diagnosed in cattle from Midwestern Brazil from 1994 to 2014 considering epidemiological, clinical, necropsy and histopathological findings. Also the following laboratory tests were used for the diagnosis of some cases of blackleg: microbiological culture and identification of the agent, microbiological culture and identification of the agent by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and identification of the agent in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE). Criteria for presumptive diagnosis of blackleg included necrohemorrhagic emphysematous myositis consisting of inflammatory infiltrate, coagulative necrosis of myofiber, interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and gas bubbles between myofibers. Fifty nine cases from 51 outbreaks of blackleg were found, which corresponded to 1.1% of 5,375 cattle deaths investigated. In five of those outbreaks, samples of affected muscles cultures for the identification of pathogenic clostridia were made. Another three samples of similar material were cultured for clostridia with subsequent identification of the isolate by PCR. Twelve samples of FFPE affected muscle fragments were submitted to PCR for identification of the etiological agent. Except for January, cases were observed in each month of the year, with higher numbers in July-October. Most affected cattle were in the age of 7-12 years, but calves younger than 6 month-old and older than 24 months were also observed. Vaccination histories were scarce. In 32 outbreaks some vaccination history was available, but only in two of those vaccination has been carried out properly. In 56 six cases the skeletal muscles were involved. Muscles of the hind limbs were the most affected. In ten cases muscles of the tongue, myocardium and diaphragm were also affected. In three of the cases the visceral form was observed. Deaths occurred after a clinical course of 6-24 hours, but in most cases cattle were found death. Sudden death was the outcome in visceral cases (cardiac) blackleg. Clostridium chauvoei was confirmed to be the cause by culturing in 5 cases, and by PCR and histopatology in 8 cases. Bacterial culture followed by PCR did not demonstrate C. chauvoei. Calculation of the economic impact indicates that blackleg is a frequent disease in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) that inflicts significant economic loss. The amount of these losses would be reduced through proper vaccination programs against the prevalent strains of C. chauvoei in the region.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de descrever casos de carbúnculo sintomático (infecção por Clostridium chauvoei) diagnosticados em bovinos do Centro-Oeste brasileiro de 1994-2014, avaliando a epidemiologia, os sinais clínicos, os achados de necropsia e a histopatologia; objetivou-se também avaliar os seguintes testes laboratoriais para o diagnóstico de carbúnculo sintomático: cultura microbiológica e identificação do agente, cultura microbiológica e identificação do agente por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR) e identificação do agente em material fixado em formol e incluído em parafina (FFIP). Os critérios para o diagnóstico presuntivo de carbúnculo sintomático incluíram miosite necro-hemorrágica enfisematosa, caracterizada por infiltrado inflamatório, necrose de coagulação de miofribras, edema intersticial, hemorragia e bolhas de gás em meio às miofribras. Cinquenta e nove casos oriundos de 51 surtos foram encontrados, o que corresponde a 1,1% das 5.375 mortes de bovinos investigadas. Em cinco desses casos, amostras do músculo afetado foram cultivadas para clostrídios patogênicos. Amostras semelhantes de outros três animais foram cultivadas para clostrídios e os isolamentos identificados subsequentes por PCR. Doze fragmentos de músculo afetado FFIP foram submetidos a PCR para identificação do agente etiológico. Com exceção de janeiro, os casos de carbúnculo sintomático foram observados em todos os meses do ano com uma maior incidência em junho-outubro. A faixa etária da maioria dos bovinos afetados era de 7-12 anos de idade, mas bovinos mais jovens que 6 meses e mais velhos que 24 meses foram também afetados. Os históricos de vacinação eram escassos nesses surtos. Em 32 surtos havia alguma informação sobre a vacinação, mas em apenas dois casos a vacinação tinha sido realizada adequadamente. Cinquenta e seis casos de carbúnculo sintomático deste estudo eram casos clássicos afetando os músculos esqueléticos. Os músculos mais afetados foram os dos membros pélvicos. Em dez casos os músculos da língua, miocárdio e diafragma estavam também afetados. Apenas três dos casos apresentaram a forma visceral (cardíaca). O curso clínico foi de 6-24 horas, mas na maioria dos casos os bovinos foram encontrados mortos. Em casos da forma visceral ocorria morte súbita. Clostridium chauvoei foi confirmado como o agente causal por cultura em cinco casos e por PCR em amostra FFIP em 8 casos. Cultura bacteriana seguida de PCR do isolado não demonstrou C. chauvoei. Carbúnculo sintomático é uma doença frequente em bovinos no Mato Grosso do Sul podendo provocar importantes prejuízos para os produtores rurais. Esses prejuízos podem ser reduzidos através de um programa de vacinação adequado usando-se vacinas eficazes contra cepas de C. chauvoei prevalentes na região.


#4 - Vaccination protocol and bacterial strain affect the serological response of beef calves against blackleg, 30(7):554-558

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Araujo R.F., Curci V.C.L.M., Nobrega F.L.C., Ferreira R.M.M. & Dutra I.S. 2010. Vaccination protocol and bacterial strain affect the serological response of beef calves against blackleg. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 30(7):554-558. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Bloco 37, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br The serological response of beef calves was evaluated with different vaccination regimens against blackleg, using an official strain (MT) and a field-collected strain of Clostridium chauvoei as antigens. Sixty calves were randomly allocated to four different groups and were submitted to distinct vaccination protocols with a commercial polyvalent vaccine. Group G1 was first vaccinated at four months of age and a booster shot was given after weaning, at eight months. Group G2 was given the first dose at eight months and a booster shot 30 days later. Group G3 was vaccinated only once at eight months and the control group was not vaccinated. These alternative vaccination regimens were proposed in an effort to adequately protect cattle under open-field farming conditions. Serological evaluations were made by Elisa at 4, 8, 9 and 10 months of age. Both groups receiving booster shots had a significantly increased serological response 30 days later. However, the serum IgG levels against C. chauvoei were significantly higher in the calves that were first vaccinated at four months. At 10 months, the two booster shot groups (G1 and G2) had similar serological responses, while the calves that were treated with a single dose of vaccine at weaning (G3) had a response that was similar to that of the control group. The serological response of the calves was significantly inferior at several of the evaluation times when the field strain of the bacteria was used as a challenge antigen instead of the official MT strain. The serological response of calves that are vaccinated twice was found to be satisfactory, independent of the first injection being made at four or eight months of age. It was also concluded that it would be useful to include local bacterial strains in commercial vaccine production.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Araujo R.F., Curci V.C.L.M., Nobrega F.L.C., Ferreira R.M.M. & Dutra I.S. 2010. Vaccination protocol and bacterial strain affect the serological response of beef calves against blackleg. [Esquemas de vacinação e cepa bacteriana influenciam na resposta sorológica contra o carbúnculo sintomático em bezerros de corte.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 30(7):554-558. Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Clóvis Pestana 793, Bloco 37, Araçatuba, SP 16050-680, Brazil. E-mail: isdutra@fmva.unesp.br Foi avaliada a resposta sorológica de bezerros de corte submetidos a diferentes esquemas de vacinação contra o carbúnculo sintomático, empregando-se como antígenos duas cepas distintas de Clostridium chauvoei: uma oficial (MT) e a outra uma cepa de campo. Os animais (n=60) foram randomizados em quatro grupos (G1, G2, G3 e Controle) e submetidos a três protocolos distintos de vacinação com um produto comercial polivalente. O G1 foi primovacinado aos 4 meses de idade e recebeu o reforço após desmama (8 meses de idade). O G2 recebeu a primeira dose aos 8 meses de idade e reforço 30 dias após. O G3 foi vacinado somente aos 8 meses de idade e o Controle não foi vacinado. As avaliações sorológicas pelo ensaio imunoenzimático (Elisa) foram realizadas aos 4, 8, 9 e 10 meses de idade dos bezerros. Nos dois esquemas em que os animais receberam o booster (G1 e G2), houve um aumento significativo (p<0,05) da resposta sorológica quando foram avaliados 30 dias após. No entanto, os valores séricos de IgG contra C. chauvoei foram significativamente maiores nos animais primovacinados aos 4 meses de idade. Aos 10 meses, os dois grupos que receberam o reforço vacinal (G1 e G2) não diferiram entre si na resposta sorológica e os bezerros que receberam uma única dose de vacina na desmama (G3) não diferiu do Controle. A resposta sorológica dos bezerros foi significativamente inferior (p<0,05) em diversos momentos da avaliação, quando a cepa de campo foi empregada como antígeno e quando comparada à da cepa MT. Pode-se deduzir que a resposta sorológica dos bezerros vacinados aos 4 e 8 meses de idade foi satisfatória e que existiram diferenças significativas nos valores séricos de anticorpos contra C. chauvoei quando na avaliação foi empregada cepa de campo.


#5 - Immunohistochemical detection of Clostridia species in paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally inoculated guinea pigs, p.4-8

Abstract in English:

Assis R.A., Lobato F.C.F., Serakides R., Santos R.L., Dias G.R.C., Nascimento R.A.P., Abreu V.L.V, Parreiras P.M. & Uzal F.A. 2005. Immunohistochemical detection of Clostridia species in paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally inoculated guinea pigs. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(1):4-8. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, Cx. Postal 567, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970, Brazil. E-mail: assisra@rwnet.com.br Blackleg is caused by Clostridium chauvoei, whereas malignant oedema is caused by C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. sordellii, C. perfringens type A, and/or C. novyi type A. Anti-C. chauvoei, anti-C. septicum, anti-C. sordellii and anti-C. novyi type A polyclonal antibodies were produced in rabbits and purified in a column of DEAE-cellulose. Aliquots of the antisera were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate and the remaining was used for the streptavidin biotin peroxidase technique (SBPT). SBPT was standardized to detect C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. sordellii and C. novyi type A in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of guinea pigs. SBPT was compared to a fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Sections and smears of muscle from inoculation area (MIA), heart, liver, spleen and kidney, were obtained for both SBPT and FAT. Cross-reactions between the different Clostridial species were not observed. C. chauvoei and C. septicum were detected in all specimens from the animals inoculated with these microorganisms, while only sections of muscle obtained from all the animals inoculated with C. sordellii and C. novyi type A were positive. The same results observed by the SBPT, were obtained on tissue smears of these microorganisms stained by the FAT. The results indicate that SBPT is suitable for detection of C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. sordellii and C. novyi type A in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of guinea pigs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Assis R.A., Lobato F.C.F., Serakides R., Santos R.L., Dias G.R.C., Nascimento R.A.P., Abreu V.L.V, Parreiras P.M. & Uzal F.A. 2005. Immunohistochemical detection of Clostridia species in paraffin-embedded tissues of experimentally inoculated guinea pigs. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(1):4-8. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, Cx. Postal 567, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970, Brazil. E-mail: assisra@rwnet.com.br Blackleg is caused by Clostridium chauvoei, whereas malignant oedema is caused by C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. sordellii, C. perfringens type A, and/or C. novyi type A. Anti-C. chauvoei, anti-C. septicum, anti-C. sordellii and anti-C. novyi type A polyclonal antibodies were produced in rabbits and purified in a column of DEAE-cellulose. Aliquots of the antisera were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate and the remaining was used for the streptavidin biotin peroxidase technique (SBPT). SBPT was standardized to detect C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. sordellii and C. novyi type A in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of guinea pigs. SBPT was compared to a fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Sections and smears of muscle from inoculation area (MIA), heart, liver, spleen and kidney, were obtained for both SBPT and FAT. Cross-reactions between the different Clostridial species were not observed. C. chauvoei and C. septicum were detected in all specimens from the animals inoculated with these microorganisms, while only sections of muscle obtained from all the animals inoculated with C. sordellii and C. novyi type A were positive. The same results observed by the SBPT, were obtained on tissue smears of these microorganisms stained by the FAT. The results indicate that SBPT is suitable for detection of C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. sordellii and C. novyi type A in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of guinea pigs.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV