Resultado da pesquisa (9)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Fabaceae

#1 - Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria lanceolata and Crotalaria pallida seeds in broilers

Abstract in English:

Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. and Crotalaria pallida Aiton. are leguminous plants of family Fabaceae found in most of the Brazilian territory. They were initially used as green manure and due their easy spread they are currently considered weeds in crops. Soybean and corn contamination can occur through the mechanical harvesting of these grains along with seeds of the Crotalaria species, which end up in the formulation of feed for production animals. Crotalaria spp. genus has toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA). Most plant species belonging to this genus can cause acute or chronic liver injury. In a first stage, one-day old broilers were divided into three groups: Group A (C. pallida seeds), Group B (C. lanceolata seeds), and Group C (Control). Groups A and B were divided into five subgroups, each with eight broilers, which received the following doses of the respective seeds in feed as of the 7th day of age: daily doses of 0.4%, 0.8% and 2.5%, and single doses of 15% and 25%. Four broilers in each study group were euthanized at 28 days of age - completing 21 days of seed consumption, and the four remaining broilers were euthanized at 42 days of age - completing 35 days of seed consumption. In a second stage, experiments were conducted using seeds of both the aforementioned plants with 28-day old broilers. These were divided into three groups of four animals each: Group D (C. pallida seeds) and Group E (C. lanceolata seeds), which received the respective seeds at daily doses of 1% and 2% in feed for 20 days, and Group F (Control). These broilers were euthanized when they were 80 days old. C. lanceolata seeds showed higher toxicity to broilers than C. pallida seeds, both supplied as of the 7th day of life. Clinical signs included inappetence, ruffled feathers, and brown diarrhea. The following gross lesions were observed: subcutaneous edema, ascites, hydropericardium, yellowish liver with hypertrophy or atrophy and enhanced lobular pattern, and distended gallbladder. Histologic lesions present in all birds in varying degrees were characterized by tumefaction and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes. The following clinical conditions and gross lesions were observed in the broilers: hepatocyte megalocytosis and karyomegaly, slight biliary epithelial hyperplasia, eosinophilic spheroids, and nuclear invagination with loss of hepatocyte cord architecture.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. e Crotalaria pallida Aiton. são leguminosas da família Fabaceae presentes na maioria do território brasileiro. Inicialmente foram utilizadas como adubação verde e devido sua fácil disseminação são consideradas invasoras de culturas. Através da colheita mecanizada da soja e milho pode ocorrer a contaminação destes grãos com sementes dessas espécies e entrar na formulação de ração para animais de produção. O gênero Crotalaria spp. possui alcaloides pirrolizidínicos de ação tóxica. A maioria das espécies desse gênero causam lesões hepáticas, com evolução aguda, ou, crônica. Frangos de corte de um dia de vida foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo A (sementes de C. pallida - doses diárias de 0,4%, 0,8%, 2,5% e doses únicas de 15% e 25%), Grupo B (sementes de C. lanceolata - doses diárias de 0,4%, 0,8%, 2,5% e doses únicas de 15% e 25%) e Grupo C (Controle). Os Grupos A e B foram divididos em cinco subgrupos, com oito frangos cada, que a partir do sétimo dia de vida, receberam as doses estabelecidas. Quatro frangos de cada grupo foram sacrificados aos 28 dias, e os quatro restantes aos 42 dias de vida. Também foram conduzidos experimentos com as sementes dessas duas plantas com aves de 28 dias, as quais foram divididas em três grupos: Grupo D (C. pallida - doses de 1% e 2% diariamente, durante vinte dias), Grupo E (C. lanceolata - doses de 1% e 2% diariamente, durante vinte dias) e Grupo F (Controle). Cada grupo composto por quatro aves. Estas aves foram sacrificadas ao completarem 80 dias de vida. Sementes de C. lanceolata demonstraram maior toxicidade para frangos de corte do que sementes de C. pallida. Os sinais clínicos foram inapetência, penas arrepiadas e diarreia acastanhada. Na macroscopia observou-se edema subcutâneo, ascite, hidropericárdio, fígado de coloração amarelada com hipertrofia e, ou, atrofia, evidenciação do padrão lobular e vesícula biliar distendida. As lesões histológicas presentes em todas as aves, em diferentes graus caracterizaram-se por tumefação e degeneração vacuolar de hepatócitos. Nas aves que manifestaram alterações clínicas e lesões macroscópicas, havia megalocitose, cariomegalia, hiperplasia do epitélio biliar, leve, esferoides eosinofílicos e invaginação nuclear com perda da arquitetura dos cordões de hepatócitos.


#2 - Ulcerative dermatitis outbreaks caused by thorns of Mimosa setosa, M. debilis and M. pudica (Fabaceae) in horses, 36(10):979-985

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Caldas S.A., Cid G.C., Nogueira V.A., França T.N., Graça F.A.S. Dutra G.A., Jacob J.C.F. & Peixoto P.V. 2016. [Ulcerative dermatitis outbreaks caused by thorns of Mimosa setosa, M. debilis and M. pudica (Fabaceae) in horses.] Surtos de dermatite ulcerativa causados por espinhos de Mimosa setosa, M. debilis e M. pudica (Fabaceae) em equinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(10):979-985. Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Anexo I do Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: vivianmedvet@yahoo.com.br Mechanic natural skin lesions in horses caused by thorns of Mimosa spp. are described. Between the three plant species identified as responsible for the lesions, Mimosa setosa was present in greater quantity (80%) in the pasture, whilst M. debilis and M. pudica existed in lower proportion. Three ulcerative dermatitis outbreaks were observed during rainy periods of April to May 2013, December 2013 to February 2014 and April to May of the same year. Twenty-five horses from the Sector of Animal Reproduction, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, showed ulcerative skin lesions with irregular borders, hemorrhagic exudate, sometimes covered with scabs, located mainly in the regions of the pastern, fetlock, scapular-humeral joints, upper and lower lips, nose, nostrils, cheeks and chamfer. Seven horses were biopsied and histopathological examination revealed ulceration of the skin with inflammatory infiltrate by macrophages and neutrophils, delimited by granulation tissue. In some cases, microspicules of these plants (hirsute trichomes) were found throughout the inflammatory reaction. The diagnosis of skin dermatitis, caused by traumatic action of the plants, was based on the presence of Mimosa spp. in the pasture, on the characteristic clinic-pathological features and on recovery of the horses after their removal from the pasture. This appears to be the first report of the occurrence of ulcerative dermatitis caused by Mimosa setosa, as dermatitis caused by the others has been described before.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Caldas S.A., Cid G.C., Nogueira V.A., França T.N., Graça F.A.S. Dutra G.A., Jacob J.C.F. & Peixoto P.V. 2016. [Ulcerative dermatitis outbreaks caused by thorns of Mimosa setosa, M. debilis and M. pudica (Fabaceae) in horses.] Surtos de dermatite ulcerativa causados por espinhos de Mimosa setosa, M. debilis e M. pudica (Fabaceae) em equinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(10):979-985. Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Anexo I do Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: vivianmedvet@yahoo.com.br Descrevem-se, na pele de equídeos, lesões de natureza mecânico-traumática causadas por espinhos de Mimosa spp. Dentre as três espécies da planta identificadas como responsáveis pelas lesões, M. setosa estava presente em maior quantidade (80%) e M. debilis e M. pudica encontravam-se em menor proporção na pastagem. Ocorreram três surtos de dermatite ulcerativa em períodos chuvosos de abril a maio de 2013, dezembro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2014 e abril a maio deste mesmo ano. Vinte e cinco equinos do Setor de Reprodução Animal da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro apresentaram, na pele, lesões ulcerativas com contornos irregulares, exsudato hemorrágico, recobertas por crostas. As lesões localizavam-se sobretudo nas regiões de quartela, boleto, articulação escapulo-umeral, lábios superior e inferior, focinho, narinas, bochechas e chanfro. Sete animais foram biopsiados e o exame histopatológico revelou ulceração da epiderme e infiltrado inflamatório constituído por macrófagos e neutrófilos, delimitado por tecido de granulação subjacente. Em alguns casos, foram observados microespículos das referidas plantas (tricomas hirsutos) em meio à reação inflamatória. O diagnóstico de dermatite cutânea causada pela ação traumática da planta baseou-se na presença de Mimosa spp. na pastagem, nas características e localização das lesões na pele dos equinos, nos achados histopatológicos e na recuperação após a retirada dos animais do pasto.


#3 - Intestinal obstruction in cattle consuming Stylosanthes sp. (Fabaceae Papilionoideae), 33(2):148-154

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Ubiali D.G., Silva R.G.F., Oliveira L.P., Moraes L.G., Caldeira F.H.B., Pescador C.A. & Colodel E.M. 2013. [Intestinal obstruction in cattle consuming Stylosanthes sp. (Fabaceae Papilionoideae).] Obstrução intestinal em bovinos causada pelo consumo de Stylosanthes sp. (Fabaceae Papilionoideae). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(2):148-154. Departamento de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78068-900, Brazil. E-mail: moleta@ufmt.br The clinical and pathological findings of intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoars in cattle consuming Stylosanthes sp. on three farms in Mato Grosso, Brazil, are described. The morbidity varied from 3.3 to 15% and the mortality was 100%. The animals stayed on pastures with predominance of Stylosanthes sp. for at least 60 days. The overall clinical picture was apathy followed by episodes of diarrhea or reduced feces and separation from the herd. Individual clinical signs were abdominal colic characterized by anorexia, discomfort, gastrointestinal hypomotility, dehydration, increased abdominal size, sweating, vocalization, sternal or lateral recumbence with the head on the flank. The clinical course lasted from 2 to 7 days. At necropsy, duodenal or pyloric obstruction was caused by ovoid phytobezoars of 2-4cm diameter; in the area of obstruction friable intestinal tissue with intense swelling, congestion, edema, and reddish mucosa was found. The rumen, abomasum and duodenum proximal to the site of obstruction was filled with greenish liquid, and absence of food contents was observed distally to the phytobezoars. Histologically, at the site of obstruction, the duodenum exhibited diffuse necrosis of the mucosal surface, thickening of the wall by submucosal edema, neutrophilic infiltration, fibrin deposition, necrosis of smooth muscle fibers, and marked congestion or hemorrhage. Pasture with the predominance of Stylosanthes sp. is a serious problem due to the possibility of phytobezoar formation, thus leading to intestinal obstruction and high mortality rates in cattle.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Ubiali D.G., Silva R.G.F., Oliveira L.P., Moraes L.G., Caldeira F.H.B., Pescador C.A. & Colodel E.M. 2013. [Intestinal obstruction in cattle consuming Stylosanthes sp. (Fabaceae Papilionoideae).] Obstrução intestinal em bovinos causada pelo consumo de Stylosanthes sp. (Fabaceae Papilionoideae). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(2):148-154. Departamento de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78068-900, Brazil. E-mail: moleta@ufmt.br O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever, em três propriedades rurais no Estado de Mato Grosso, a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico e o patológico da obstrução intestinal por fitobezoares em bovinos que pastoreavam em piquetes com predomínio de Stylosanthes sp. pelo menos 60 dias. A morbidade variou de 3,3% a 15% e a mortalidade foi de 100%. O quadro clínico foi de cólica abdominal caracterizado por apatia, anorexia, inquietação, desconforto, sudorese e vocalização, seguido por episódios de diarreia ou diminuição da produção fecal, desidratação, hipomotilidade gastrintestinal, aumento do volume abdominal, decúbito esternal ou lateral com a cabeça voltada para o flanco e morte. O curso clínico foi de 2-7 dias. A principal alteração notada durante a necropsia dos bovinos foi a obstrução intestinal por fitobezoar ovoide de 2-5 cm de diâmetro, frequentemente no duodeno, próximo ao piloro, ocasionalmente em sua porção média. Na área de obstrução notou-se a necrose da parede intestinal que estava enegrecida e intensamente demarcada em relação a segmento adjacente normal, além de intenso espessamento associado a edema, congestão e hemorragia. O abomaso e os segmentos intestinais anteriores a obstrução apresentavam-se repletos de conteúdo alimentar líquido e posteriormente estava com ausência de conteúdo. O rúmen frequentemente tinha grande quantidade de conteúdo liquido a pastoso. Em todos os bovinos necropsiados múltiplas estruturas sólidas, arredondadas ou ovoides, esverdeadas (fitobezoares) foram observadas no abomaso. Estes achados indicam que pastagens com predomínio de Stylosanthes sp. predispõem a formação de fitobezoares, os quais podem levar à obstrução intestinal e morte em bovinos.


#4 - Spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae Faboideae) in cattle and experimental poisoning in sheep, 32(11):1087-1094

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Cruz R.A.S., Oliveira L.P., Caldeira F.H.B, Mendonça F.S., Bacha F.B., Pott A., Lemos R.A.A. & Colodel E.M. 2012. [Spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae Faboideae) in cattle and experimental poisoning in sheep.] Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae Faboideae) em bovinos e experimental em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(11):1087-1094. Departamento de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de Agronomia, Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78068-900, Brazil. E-mail: moleta@ufmt.br This paper reports cattle mortalities in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, caused by the consumption of the leaves of Pterodon emarginatus. The outbreaks occurred during the dry season after P. emarginatus trees had fallen to the ground due to high winds or after having been cut for wood, and cattle had access to the branches. Forty cattle died during three different outbreaks. First clinical signs were seen after 24-72 hours of the consumption of the leaves by the cattle. The course of the letal disease was from 12 to 36 hours. Clinical signs were characterized by apathy, depression, walking aimlessly, pressing the head against objects, and occasionally photosensitization in cases of poisoning with a longer clinical course. The disease was reproduced by administration of P. emarginatus leaves at a minimum toxic dose of 20g/kg for sheep and 6g/kg for cattle. The main macroscopic findings in spontaneous and experimental cases were in the liver, characterized by hepatomegaly and diffuse accentuation of the lobular pattern on the capsular and cut surfaces. Additionally, there were petechiae, ecchymoses and suffusions within the thoracic and abdominal serosa surfaces. In two outbreaks, fotossensibilization was reported in cattle that survived the acute phase. The main histopathological findings were marked centrilobular or massive coagulative hepatocellular necrosis associated with congestion and hemorrhages, surrounded or not by markedly swollen and vesicular hepatocytes in the periacinar area. The diagnosis was based on epidemiological data, clinical signs, necropsy findings, histological lesions and experimental reproduction of the poisoning in cattle and sheep. These findings showed P. emarginatus to be a hepatotoxic plant of interest in the Midwest region of Brazil.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Cruz R.A.S., Oliveira L.P., Caldeira F.H.B, Mendonça F.S., Bacha F.B., Pott A., Lemos R.A.A. & Colodel E.M. 2012. [Spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae Faboideae) in cattle and experimental poisoning in sheep.] Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae Faboideae) em bovinos e experimental em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(11):1087-1094. Departamento de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de Agronomia, Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa 2367, Bairro Boa Esperança, Cuiabá, MT 78068-900, Brazil. E-mail: moleta@ufmt.br Relatam-se mortalidades de bovinos nos Estados de Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul relacionadas ao consumo de folhas de Pterodon emarginatus. Três surtos ocorreram no período de seca na região Centro-Oeste, após a queda de árvores devido a ventos fortes ou após serem derrubadas para aproveitamento da madeira. Morreram 40 bovinos em três diferentes surtos. A intoxicação foi reproduzida com administração de folhas de P. emarginatus; a dose tóxica mínima foi 20g/kg para ovinos e 6g/kg para bovinos. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se entre 24 e 72 horas após o consumo da planta. A evolução clínica da doença letal foi de 12 a 36 horas. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram por apatia, depressão, andar a esmo, pressão da cabeça contra objetos. Em dois dos surtos, os bovinos que sobreviveram a fase aguda da doença, desenvolveram fotossensibilização. Os principais achados macroscópicos nos casos espontâneos e experimentais foram no fígado; estes se caracterizaram por hepatomegalia e evidenciação do padrão lobular na superfície capsular e de corte. Notaram-se também hemorragias nas serosas abdominais e torácicas. Microscopicamente observou-se necrose coagulativa hepatocelular, que variou de centrolobular a massiva, por vezes associada à congestão e hemorragia; ocorreu também marcada tumefação e vacuolização de hepatócitos na região periacinar. O diagnóstico foi baseado nos dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, patológicos e na reprodução experimental da intoxicação em bovinos e ovinos. Estes achados caracterizam P. emarginatus como planta hepatotóxica de interesse pecuário na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil.


#5 - Spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) in Goiás, Brazil, 32(6):485-489

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Sant’Ana F.J.F., Perin J.N., Bilego U.O., Rabelo R.E., Vulcani V.A.S. & Paula E.M.N. 2012. [Spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) in Goiás, Brazil.] Intoxicação espontânea por Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) em bovinos no Estado de Goiás. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(6):485-489. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Campus Jataí, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Jataí, GO 75801-458, Brazil. E-mail: santanafjf@yahoo.com An outbreak of poisoning by Pterodon emarginatus in cattle in Goiás, Brazil, is described. Eighty four cattle that accidentally consumed the leaves and fruits from a P. emarginatus tree, fallen in a storm, were affected and seven died. Clinical signs included piloerection, flank retraction, marked apathy, prostration, muscle tremors, muzzle dryness, tenesmus, incoordination, reluctance to move, and prolonged sternal recumbency. AST, ALT, and GGT serum activity, and bilirubin levels were markedly increased. Gross lesions included hepatomegaly, multifocal areas of necrosis in the liver, and hemorrhages in the heart, parietal pleura, mesentery, omentum, ruminal serosa, spleen, lung, subcutaneous tissue, and thoracic and intercostal skeletal muscles. Histologically, moderate to severe, massive hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis with moderate bile duct hyperplasia and mild bile stasis were observed. In addition, moderate multifocal vacuolar degeneration in the convoluted renal tubular cells was noted.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Sant’Ana F.J.F., Perin J.N., Bilego U.O., Rabelo R.E., Vulcani V.A.S. & Paula E.M.N. 2012. [Spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) in Goiás, Brazil.] Intoxicação espontânea por Pterodon emarginatus (Fabaceae) em bovinos no Estado de Goiás. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 32(6):485-489. Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Campus Jataí, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Jataí, GO 75801-458, Brazil. E-mail: santanafjf@yahoo.com Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Pterodon emarginatus em bovinos no Estado de Goiás. De um lote de 84 bovinos que comeram avidamente folhas e os frutos da planta após a queda acidental de uma árvore, todos os animais adoeceram e sete morreram. Os sinais clínicos observados foram eriçamento dos pelos, retração do flanco, apatia profunda, prostração, tremores musculares, ressecamento do focinho, tenesmo, incoordenação, relutância em movimentar-se e decúbito esternal prolongado. As atividades séricas de AST, ALT e GGT e os teores de bilirrubina estavam acentuadamente elevados. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de hepatomegalia e áreas multifocais de necrose no fígado, além de hemorragias no coração, pleura parietal, mesentério, omento, serosa do rúmen, baço, pulmão, subcutâneo e musculatura esquelética intercostal e torácica. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose hepatocelular massiva moderada a acentuada, hiperplasia biliar multifocal moderada e bilestase multifocal leve. Adicionalmente, notou-se degeneração vacuolar multifocal moderada nos túbulos contorcidos dos rins.


#6 - Intoxicação espontânea por fedegoso em bovinos: relato de 16 surtos, 31(2):139-146

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Carmo P.M.S., Irigoyen L.F., Lucena R.B., Fighera R.A., Kommers G.D. & Barros C.S.L. 2011. Spontaneous coffee senna poisoning in cattle: Report on 16 outbreaks. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(2):139-146. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Sixteen outbreaks of Senna occidentalis (coffee senna) that occurred in cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were reviewed. The great majority (75%) of the outbreaks occurred in adult cattle at pasture during the autumn and winter months with 50% in May, evidencing a striking seasonality. Mortality rates varied from 4.2% to 55.2% and cattle died 2 days up to 2 weeks after showing clinical signs that included dry feces (occasionally diarrhea), muscle weakness, reluctance to move, tachypnea, instability of the hind limbs with dragging of the toes, tremors in muscles of the thighs, neck, and head, ear dropping, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency and death. Myoglobinuria characterized by a dark red or black discolored urine was a consistent finding in cattle affected at pasture but not in those poisoned by ration contaminated with coffee senna beans. Creatine phosphokinase serum activity was marked ly elevated. Main gross changes observed in 23 necropsies involved skeletal muscles of the hind limbs. These changes consisted of varying degrees of paleness of muscle groups. Subepicardial and subendocardial hemorrhages were present in the hearts of all affected cattle. Histologically a segmental degenerative myopathy of striated muscles was present in every case and had a multifocal polyphasic or monophasic character. Myocardial (3/23), hepatic (3/13), renal (3/10), and splenic (1/6) microscopic lesions were observed occasionally. Myocardial lesions were mild and consisted of vacuolation of cardiomyocytes or focal fibrosis. Hepatic changes consisted of diffuse hepatocelular vacuolation, cytosegrosomes within hepatocytes, and individual hepatocellular necrosis. Kidneys had vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium associated with acidophilic casts (proteinosis) within tubular lumina. In the spleen there was marked necrosis of lymphocytes of the white pulp. No histological changes were found in the brains of 13 affected cattle. The data of this study suggest that coffee senna poisoning is an important cause of death in cattle in southern Brazil.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Carmo P.M.S., Irigoyen L.F., Lucena R.B., Fighera R.A., Kommers G.D. & Barros C.S.L. 2011. Spontaneous coffee senna poisoning in cattle: Report on 16 outbreaks. [Intoxicação espontânea por fedegoso em bovinos: relato de 16 surtos.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(2):139-146. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Dezesseis surtos de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (fedegoso) em bovinos do Rio Grande do Sul foram revisados. A grande maioria dos surtos (75%) ocorreu em bovinos adultos em pastoreio durante o outono e inverno com 50% dos surtos em maio, evidenciando uma notável sazonalidade. Os coeficientes de mortalidade variaram de 4,2% a 55,2% e os bovinos morriam 2 dias a duas semanas após mostrarem sinais clínicos que incluíam fezes ressecadas (ocasionalmente diarreia), fraqueza muscular, relutância em mover-se, taquipneia, instabilidade dos membros pélvicos com arrastamento das pinças, tremores nos músculos das coxas, pescoço e cabeça; orelhas caídas, decúbito esternal, decúbito lateral, e morte. Mioglobinúria, caracterizada por urina vermelho-escura ou preta foi regularmente encontrada em bovinos afetados em pastoreio, mas não naqueles que se intoxicaram ao ingerir ração contaminada com as sementes da planta. A atividade sérica da creatina fosfocinase estava acentuadamente elevada. As principais alterações macroscópicas observadas em 23 necropsias envolviam os músculos esqueléticos dos membros pélvicos. Essas alterações consistiam de graus variáveis de palidez em grupos musculares. Hemorragias subepicárdicas e subendocárdicas ocorreram nos corações de todos os bovinos afetados. Histologicamente, miopatia degenerativa dos músculos estriados esteve presente em todos os casos e tinha um caráter multifocal monofásico ou polifásico. Lesões microscópicas no miocárdio (3/23), fígado (3/13), rim (3/10) e baço (1/6) foram ocasionalmente observadas. As lesões miocárdicas eram discretas e consistiam de vacuolização dos cardiomiócitos ou fibrose focal. As lesões hepatocelulares consistiam de vacuolização difusa, formação de citossegrossomos e necrose individual. Nos rins havia degeneração vacuolar do epitélio tubular associada a cilindros eosinofílicos (proteinose) na luz tubular. No baço havia marcada necrose de linfócitos da polpa branca. Nenhuma alteração foi encontrada ao exame histológico do encéfalo de 13 bovinos afetados. Os dados deste estudo sugerem que a intoxicação por fedegoso é uma importante causa de morte em bovinos do sul do Brasil.


#7 - Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae) em bovinos, p.149-156

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Boghossian M.R., Peixoto P.V., Brito M.F. & Tokarnia C.H. 2007. [Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae) seeds in cattle.] Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae) em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(4):149-156. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: mailto:mubogho@hotmail.com Experiments were performed to define the clinical and pathological picture of prolonged administration of the seeds of Crotalaria mucronata Desv. to cattle, in order to obtain additional information about this toxicosis. The ground seeds were administered orally to 9 bovines. Doses of 1g/kg/day, 2g/kg/day, 3g/kg/day each in one bovine, and 5g/kg/day in two of three bovines, given for 61- 63 days, did not cause poisoning. Doses of 5g/kg, in one bovine, 7.5g/kg in two bovines and 10g/kg in one bovine, given for 47-61 days, caused symptoms between 47 and 80 days after the first administration and caused death between 3 hours and 5 days after the onset of symptoms. The main clinical signs were positive venous pulse of the jugular vein, abdominal breath, tachycardia, loss of appetite, dry feces, sub-mandibular edema and weakness. Bovines that did not die, were slaughtered 8 or 9 months after first administration. At necropsy pulmonary paleness, hydropericardium, hydrothorax, hydroperitoneum, mesenteric edema, augmented hepatic consistency, discoloration of the liver, right cardiac ventricle dilatation and ruminal wall edema were seen. The main histological lesions were thickening of the alveolar walls and of the arterioles with narrowing of their lumen, and periarteriolar fibrosis, besides hepatic and cardiac lesions of minor importance. It is concluded, that the lesions caused by ingestion of the seeds of C. mucronata over a long period are caused by the difficulties of blood passage through the pulmonar vessels due to fibrosis and thickening of the arteriolar walls through the pneumotoxic action of the plant.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Boghossian M.R., Peixoto P.V., Brito M.F. & Tokarnia C.H. 2007. [Experimental poisoning by Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae) seeds in cattle.] Aspectos clínico-patológicos da intoxicação experimental pelas sementes de Crotalaria mucronata (Fabaceae) em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(4):149-156. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: mailto:mubogho@hotmail.com Experiments were performed to define the clinical and pathological picture of prolonged administration of the seeds of Crotalaria mucronata Desv. to cattle, in order to obtain additional information about this toxicosis. The ground seeds were administered orally to 9 bovines. Doses of 1g/kg/day, 2g/kg/day, 3g/kg/day each in one bovine, and 5g/kg/day in two of three bovines, given for 61- 63 days, did not cause poisoning. Doses of 5g/kg, in one bovine, 7.5g/kg in two bovines and 10g/kg in one bovine, given for 47-61 days, caused symptoms between 47 and 80 days after the first administration and caused death between 3 hours and 5 days after the onset of symptoms. The main clinical signs were positive venous pulse of the jugular vein, abdominal breath, tachycardia, loss of appetite, dry feces, sub-mandibular edema and weakness. Bovines that did not die, were slaughtered 8 or 9 months after first administration. At necropsy pulmonary paleness, hydropericardium, hydrothorax, hydroperitoneum, mesenteric edema, augmented hepatic consistency, discoloration of the liver, right cardiac ventricle dilatation and ruminal wall edema were seen. The main histological lesions were thickening of the alveolar walls and of the arterioles with narrowing of their lumen, and periarteriolar fibrosis, besides hepatic and cardiac lesions of minor importance. It is concluded, that the lesions caused by ingestion of the seeds of C. mucronata over a long period are caused by the difficulties of blood passage through the pulmonar vessels due to fibrosis and thickening of the arteriolar walls through the pneumotoxic action of the plant.


#8 - Intoxicação por Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) em eqüídeos no semi-árido da Paraíba

Abstract in English:

Nobre V.M.T., Riet-Correa F., Barbosa Filho J.M., Dantas A.F.M., Tabosa I.M. & Vasconcelos J.S. 2004. [Poisoning by Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) in Equidae in the semiarid region of Paraíba.] Intoxicação por Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) em eqüídeos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3):132-143. Depto Clínicas Veteri-nárias, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: verônica.nobre@uol.com.br From 2000 to 2003 eight cases of poisoning by Crotalaria retusa L. were observed in horses on 8 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba and Ceará. C. retusa was found in all farms. The main clinical signs were characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy, with dullness or hyperexcitability, head pressing, compulsive walking or circling and, occasionally, violent uncontrollable galloping. Decreased cranial nerve reflexes, ataxia and weakness were also observed. Other clinical signs were anorexia, weight loss, photosensitization and jaundice. The clinical manifestation period varied from 4 to 40 days, but most horses had a previous history of weight loss. At necropsy the livers were hard, with irregular surface and white areas mixed with dark red areas and increased lobular pattern. Mild jaundice, ascitis, hydropericardium and hydrothorax were also observed. Edema and moderate congestion were seen in the lungs. Histologic changes of the liver were characterized by fibrosis, mainly periportal, megalocitosis and bile duct cell proliferation. Multifocal areas of centrilobular or midzonal hemorrhages were also observed. Centrilobular hemorrhagic necrosis was present in two horses. Alzheimer type II astrocytes were observed, isolated or in groups, mainly in the caudate nucleus and cortex in 4 horses. The poisoning was experimentally produced in 1 adult horse and 3 adult donkeys. The horse received daily 100 g of C. retusa seeds and died 52 days after the beginning of the experiment. The dried whole C. retusa was mixed with grass and given to the 3 experimental donkeys at daily doses of 10g/kg, 5g/kg and 2.5g/kg, respectively. The donkey treated with 5g per kg died 48 days after beginning of the experiment and the other two were sacrificed at 120 days. Clinical signs and pathology were similar to those observed in spontaneous cases, but Alhzeimer type II astrocytes were observed only in the donkey that died 48 days after the beginning of ingestion of the plant material. The concentration of monocrotaline in the whole plant given to the donkeys was 0.5%.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Nobre V.M.T., Riet-Correa F., Barbosa Filho J.M., Dantas A.F.M., Tabosa I.M. & Vasconcelos J.S. 2004. [Poisoning by Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) in Equidae in the semiarid region of Paraíba.] Intoxicação por Crotalaria retusa (Fabaceae) em eqüídeos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3):132-143. Depto Clínicas Veteri-nárias, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: verônica.nobre@uol.com.br From 2000 to 2003 eight cases of poisoning by Crotalaria retusa L. were observed in horses on 8 farms in the semiarid region of Paraíba and Ceará. C. retusa was found in all farms. The main clinical signs were characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy, with dullness or hyperexcitability, head pressing, compulsive walking or circling and, occasionally, violent uncontrollable galloping. Decreased cranial nerve reflexes, ataxia and weakness were also observed. Other clinical signs were anorexia, weight loss, photosensitization and jaundice. The clinical manifestation period varied from 4 to 40 days, but most horses had a previous history of weight loss. At necropsy the livers were hard, with irregular surface and white areas mixed with dark red areas and increased lobular pattern. Mild jaundice, ascitis, hydropericardium and hydrothorax were also observed. Edema and moderate congestion were seen in the lungs. Histologic changes of the liver were characterized by fibrosis, mainly periportal, megalocitosis and bile duct cell proliferation. Multifocal areas of centrilobular or midzonal hemorrhages were also observed. Centrilobular hemorrhagic necrosis was present in two horses. Alzheimer type II astrocytes were observed, isolated or in groups, mainly in the caudate nucleus and cortex in 4 horses. The poisoning was experimentally produced in 1 adult horse and 3 adult donkeys. The horse received daily 100 g of C. retusa seeds and died 52 days after the beginning of the experiment. The dried whole C. retusa was mixed with grass and given to the 3 experimental donkeys at daily doses of 10g/kg, 5g/kg and 2.5g/kg, respectively. The donkey treated with 5g per kg died 48 days after beginning of the experiment and the other two were sacrificed at 120 days. Clinical signs and pathology were similar to those observed in spontaneous cases, but Alhzeimer type II astrocytes were observed only in the donkey that died 48 days after the beginning of ingestion of the plant material. The concentration of monocrotaline in the whole plant given to the donkeys was 0.5%.


#9 - Pathological aspects of poisoning by Crotalaria spectabilis (Fabaceae) seeds in swine, 17(1):12-18

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Souza A.C., Hatayde M.R. & Bechara G.H. 1997. [Pathological aspects of poisoning by Crotalaria spectabilis (Fabaceae) seeds in swine.] Aspectos patológicos da intoxicação de suínos por sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis (Fabaceae). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 17(1):12-18. Depto Patologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Campus de Jaboticabal, Rodovia Carlos Tonanni Km 5, Jaboticabal, SP 14870-000, Brazil. A feeding experiment was undertaken using 24 weanling pigs, distributed in four treatments, with 6 animals in each group. The animals of group 1, 2, 3 and 4 were fed with rations containing 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of Crotalaria spectabilis seeds, respectively, during a period of 90 days. Postmorten examination was performed immediately after death in the animals which died during the experiment. The pigs which survived were sacrificed on the last day of the experiment. During the autopsy fragments of liver, kidneys, lungs and stomach were collected for histological examination. The main clinical signs of the intoxication were subcutaneous oedema, affecting particulary the face, limbs and neck, pale ocular and oral mucous membranes, ruffled bristle, emaciation and apathy. Hydropericardium was the most common finding at necropsy, occurring in severa) intoxicated animals. The major microscopic changes were fibrosis, bile ductulus proliferation and megalocytosis in the liver, bronchopneumonia and chronic bronchitis, renal tubular cell megalocytosis, nephrosis and chronic nephritis, as well as gastritis and gastric ulcerations. The experimental findings showed that rations contaminated with C. spectabilis seeds, at the used rate, were toxic to swine.

Abstract in Portuguese:

SINOPSE.- Souza A.C., Hatayde M.R. & Bechara G.H. 1997. [Pathological aspects of poisoning by Crotalaria spectabilis (Fabaceae) seeds in swine.] Aspectos patológicos da intoxicação de suínos por sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis (Fabaceae). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 17(1):12-18. Depto Patologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Campus de Jaboticabal, Rodovia Carlos Tonanni Km 5, Jaboticabal, SP 14870-000, Brazil. Foram utilizados 24 suínos desmamados, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, com seis animais em cada. Os suínos dos tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4 receberam, durante 90 dias, ração com respectivamente: 0,0, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,6% de sementes de Crotalaria spectabilis. Os animais que morreram durante o período experimental foram necropsiados logo após a morte. Os sobreviventes foram sacrificados no último dia do experimento. Durante as necropsias, foram colhidos fragmentos do fígado, rim, pulmão e estômago, para realização de exame histopatológico. Os principais sintomas da intoxicação foram edemas subcutâneos, principalmente nos membros, na face e região do pescoço, mucosas oral e ocular pálidas, cerdas eriçadas, caquexia e apatia. O hidropericárdio foi a lesão macroscópica mais comum, acometendo vários animais que receberam a ração contaminada. As principais lesões microscópicas foram fibrose, proliferação de ductos biliares e megalocitose no fígado, broncopneumonia e bronquite crônicas, megalocitose de células epiteliais tubulares renais, nefrose e nefrite crônica, bem como gastrite e ulceração gástrica. Os resultados destes experimentos indicam que ração contaminada com sementes de C. spectabilis, nas proporções utilizadas, foi tóxica para suínos.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV