Resultado da pesquisa (7)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa electrolytes

#1 - Fractional excretion of electrolytes and paradoxical aciduria in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum

Abstract in English:

The fractional excretion of electrolytes is used to assess renal function and interpret electrolyte and acid-base imbalances. Left displaced abomasum is a common disorder in dairy cows, which causes hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. There is limited information on fractional excretion of electrolytes in cows with displaced abomasum. This study aimed to measure the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride and paradoxical aciduria in dairy cows with displaced abomasum. Blood and urine samples were collected from 30 dairy cows before and 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. The cows were divided into two groups (G1: laparoscopy and G2: laparotomy) with 15 cows each. The concentrations of chloride, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured in serum and urine. Urinary pH and packed cell volume were measured. Fractional excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride and urinary strong ion difference [SID]urine were calculated using published formulas. Cows in both groups showed hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis before surgery; however, hypochloremia was observed only in G2. Potassium concentration significantly increased 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery in G1 and 48 and 72 h after surgery in G2. There were no significant changes in fractional excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium and urinary pH and [SID]urine between treatments and time points. Paradoxical aciduria was observed before and 24 h following surgery in G1. Fractional excretion and urinary SID are valuable tools to understand hypochloremic, hypokalemic alkalosis in dairy cows with displaced abomasum, as well as paradoxical aciduria and return of abomasal flux.

Abstract in Portuguese:

A excreção fracionada de eletrólitos é calculada para verificar a função renal e auxiliar na interpretação de distúrbios eletrolíticos e ácido-base. O deslocamento de abomaso à esquerda é frequente em vacas leiteiras, ocasionado alcalose hipoclorêmica e hipocalêmica. Há pouca informação na literatura sobre excreção fracionada de eletrólitos em vacas com deslocamento de abomaso. Este estudo objetivou mensurar a excreção fracionada de sódio, potássio e cloro e a acidúria paradoxal em vacas leiteiras com deslocamento abomasal. Amostras sanguíneas e urinárias foram coletadas de 30 vacas antes e 24, 48 e 72 horas após operação. As vacas foram divididas em dois grupos (G1: laparoscopia e G2: laparotomia) com 15 animais cada. As concentrações de cloro, sódio, potássio e creatinina foram dosadas no soro e urina. Mensurou-se pH urinário e o hematócrito. A excreção fracionada e diferença de íons fortes urinário [SID]urina foram calculados utilizando fórmulas publicadas. Vacas de ambos os grupos apresentaram alcalose hipocalêmica antes da operação. Não houve alterações significativas na excreção fracionada de sódio, potássio e cloro, no pH urinário e na [SID]urina entre os tratamentos e momentos. Acidúria paradoxal foi observada no G1 antes e 24h após operação. A excreção fracionada e [SID]urina são ferramentas importantes para interpretar a alcalose hipoclorêmica e hipocalêmica em vacas leiteiras com deslocamento de abomaso, como também a acidúria paradoxal e o retorno do fluxo abomasal.


#2 - Urinary fractional excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride in lambs supplemented with ammonium chloride to prevent urolithiasis

Abstract in English:

Urolithiasis is an important disease of lambs confined. The urine acidification, by ammonium chloride intake, is the preventive method most frequently employed. Due to the lack of specific information in sheep, this study was performed to evaluate the electrolyte changes that occur in the urine of lambs receiving ammonium chloride in the diet. One hundred male lambs, 3 months old, were kept in a feedlot during 56 days, and distributed in 3 groups: G1 (n=40) receiving 400mg/kg BW of ammonium chloride/day during 21 days; G2 (n=40) receiving 400mg/kg BW of ammonium chloride/day during 42 days; and G3 (n=20) that did not receive ammonium chloride. The lambs were examined and blood and urine samples were collected every 7 days: 0 (the beginning of ammonium chloride intake), 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days. Serum and urine sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), and creatinine concentrations were measured. The urinary fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes and the urine strong ion difference [(Na+ + K+) - Cl-] were calculated. FEs of Na+, K+, and Cl- did not vary over time in G3, proving that the feedlot diet, by itself, did not influence the urinary excretion of these electrolytes. The ingestion of ammonium chloride, instead, influenced FEs over the time of feedlot. The urinary SID was more accurate than the FE of Cl- to demonstrate that the concentration of Cl- increased in the urine. It highlights the relevance of this variable.

Abstract in Portuguese:

A urolitíase é uma doença importante de cordeiros confinados. A acidificação da urina, pela ingestão de cloreto de amônio, é o método preventivo mais frequentemente empregado. Devido à falta de informação específica em ovinos, este estudo foi realizado para avaliar as alterações que ocorrem nos eletrólitos urinários de cordeiros, que receberam cloreto de amônio na dieta. Foram utilizados 100 cordeiros, com 3 meses de idade, que foram mantidos em confinamento durante 56 dias, e distribuídos em 3 grupos: G1 (n=40) que receberam 400mg/kg de peso vivo (PV) de cloreto de amônio/dia, durante 21 dias; G2 (n=40) que receberam 400mg/kg de PV de cloreto de amônio/dia durante 42 dias; e G3 (n=20) que não receberam cloreto de amônio. Os cordeiros foram examinados e as amostras de sangue e urina foram colhidas a cada 7 dias: 0 (antes do início da ingestão de cloreto de amônio), 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, e 42 dias. As concentrações séricas e urinárias de sódio (Na+), potássio (K+), cloreto (Cl-), e de creatinina foram mensuradas em todos os momentos de colheita. A excreção fracionada urinária (EFu) de eletrólitos e a diferença de íons fortes (SID) na urina [(Na+ + K+) - Cl] foram calculadas. A EFu de Na+, K+ e Cl- não variou ao longo do tempo em G3, provando que a dieta de confinamento, por si só, não influenciou a excreção urinária destes eletrólitos. A ingestão de cloreto de amônio, pelo grupo G1 e G2, influenciou a EFu sobre o tempo de confinamento. A SID urinária foi mais precisa do que a EFu de Cl- para demonstrar que a concentração de Cl- aumentou na urina, o que destacou a relevância desta variável.


#3 - Starvation and refeeding in rats: effect on some parameters of energy metabolism and electrolytes and changes of hepatic tissue, 36(Supl.1):101-105

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Namazi F., Omidi A., Abbasi S., Afsar M., Honarmand M. & Nazifi S. 2016. Starvation and refeeding in rats: effect on some parameters of energy metabolism and electrolytes and changes of hepatic tissue. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(Supl.1):101-105. Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. E-mail: fnamazi@shirazu.ac.ir Regarding the importance of starvation and refeeding and the occurrence of refeeding syndrome in various conditions, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of refeeding on some parameters of energy metabolism and electrolytes and changes of hepatic tissue in male Wistar rats. Fifty-seven rats were divided into six groups, having 6 to 11 rats. Food was provided ad-libitum until three months and then the first group was considered without starvation (day 0). Other rats were fasted for two weeks. Group 2 was applied to a group immediately after starvation (day 14). Groups 3 to 6 were refed in days 16 till 22, respectively. At the end of each period, blood and tissue samples were taken and histopathological and serum analysis, including serum electrolytes (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium), the energy parameters (glucose, insulin, cortisol) and the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) were determined. Insulin decreased by starvation and then showed an increasing trend compared to starvation period, which the highest amount of this parameter was observed eight days post-refeeding. Serum glucose level showed the opposite pattern of insulin. Histopathological examination of the tissue sections revealed clear vacuoles after starvation and refeeding, in which the severity of lesions gradually decreased during refeeding. The cortisol level decreased by starvation and then increased during refeeding. Also, potassium and phosphorus concentrations declined by refeeding and the serum sodium and potassium levels were changed in the relatively opposite manner. The calcium level decreased by starvation and then increased during refeeding. These results could help recognize and remedy the refeeding syndrome.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Namazi F., Omidi A., Abbasi S., Afsar M., Honarmand M. & Nazifi S. 2016. Starvation and refeeding in rats: effect on some parameters of energy metabolism and electrolytes and changes of hepatic tissue. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 36(Supl.1):101-105. Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. E-mail: fnamazi@shirazu.ac.ir Regarding the importance of starvation and refeeding and the occurrence of refeeding syndrome in various conditions, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of refeeding on some parameters of energy metabolism and electrolytes and changes of hepatic tissue in male Wistar rats. Fifty-seven rats were divided into six groups, having 6 to 11 rats. Food was provided ad-libitum until three months and then the first group was considered without starvation (day 0). Other rats were fasted for two weeks. Group 2 was applied to a group immediately after starvation (day 14). Groups 3 to 6 were refed in days 16 till 22, respectively. At the end of each period, blood and tissue samples were taken and histopathological and serum analysis, including serum electrolytes (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium), the energy parameters (glucose, insulin, cortisol) and the liver enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) were determined. Insulin decreased by starvation and then showed an increasing trend compared to starvation period, which the highest amount of this parameter was observed eight days post-refeeding. Serum glucose level showed the opposite pattern of insulin. Histopathological examination of the tissue sections revealed clear vacuoles after starvation and refeeding, in which the severity of lesions gradually decreased during refeeding. The cortisol level decreased by starvation and then increased during refeeding. Also, potassium and phosphorus concentrations declined by refeeding and the serum sodium and potassium levels were changed in the relatively opposite manner. The calcium level decreased by starvation and then increased during refeeding. These results could help recognize and remedy the refeeding syndrome.


#4 - Acid-base balance of dairy cows and its relationship with alcoholic stability and mineral composition of milk, 34(5):398-402

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Fagnani R., Beloti V. & Battaglini A.P.P. 2014. Acid-base balance of dairy cows and its relationship with alcoholic stability and mineral composition of milk. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(5):398-402. Laboratório de Inspeção de Produtos de Origem Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid PR-445 Km 380, Cx. Postal 6001, Londrina, PR 86051-980, Brazil. E-mail: rafaelfagnani@hotmail.com This study aimed to associate the occurrence of acid-base disorders with the alcoholic stability of milk from animals in the field, and to evaluate differences between the mineral composition of milk that was both stable and unstable in alcohol. The sample comprised 96 dairy cows, where the milk and blood of each corresponding animal was collected. The mineral composition of stable and unstable milk in alcohol was different and may be related to acid-base disturbances. The average amount of phosphate was lower in the milk that was unstable in alcohol, while potassium was greater. Frequency of the alcoholically unstable milk cases was higher in the cows with acid-base disturbances. Respiratory alkalosis was the disorder that was most observed.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Fagnani R., Beloti V. & Battaglini A.P.P. 2014. Acid-base balance of dairy cows and its relationship with alcoholic stability and mineral composition of milk. [Equilíbrio ácido-base de vacas leiteiras e sua relação com a estabilidade alcoólica e composição mineral do leite.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(5):398-402. Laboratório de Inspeção de Produtos de Origem Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid PR-445 Km 380, Cx. Postal 6001, Londrina, PR 86051-980, Brazil. E-mail: rafaelfagnani@hotmail.com Esse trabalho teve como objetivo associar a ocorrência de distúrbios ácido-base com a estabilidade alcoólica do leite de animais a campo, bem como avaliar diferenças entre a composição mineral de leites estáveis e instáveis ao álcool. A amostragem compreendeu 96 vacas leiteiras, das quais o leite e o sangue correspondente de cada animal foram coletados. A composição mineral entre leites estáveis e instáveis ao álcool foi diferente e também pode estar relacionada aos distúrbios ácido-básicos. A quantidade média de fosfato foi menor no leite instável ao álcool, enquanto a de potássio foi maior. A frequência de amostras de leite com instabilidade alcoólica foi maior nas vacas com distúrbios ácido-básicos. A alcalose respiratória foi o desequilíbrio mais observado.


#5 - Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease, 30(10):868-876

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Martínez P.P. & Carvalho M.B. 2010. [Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease.] Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 30(10):868-876. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Área de Clínica Médica de Pequenos Animais, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP 14870-000, Brazil. E-mail: pedromartinezpadua@hotmail.com In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the first problem to be solved by the organism is to maintain water and sodium homeostasis and, with the worsening of the renal injuries, other severe problems related to the calcium and phosphorus homeostasis emerge. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the renal excretion and serum profile of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium in healthy dogs and in dogs with naturally acquired CKD. Three groups of adult male and female dogs of varied breeds were evaluated. Normal dogs were in the control group (G1) and the CKD dogs were distributed into two groups in accordance with the stage of renal function impairment (G2 e G3, respectively, stages 1-2 and stages 3-4, proposed by IRIS 2006 staging CKD). The G3 dogs showed increased serum levels of ionized calcium and phosphorus, in addition to the reduction of sodium levels. Regarding the renal excretion of the analyzed electrolytes, the G1 and G2 groups showed a decrease of filtered load and increase of fractional excretion, yet there were no significant variations on the urinary excretions. The results suggest that the kidneys of the CKD dogs can maintain similar values of electrolytes urinary excretion as the kidneys of normal dogs. The mechanism involves an increase of fractional excretion while glomerular filtration decreases. This compensation process, however, can lose its efficiency in the later stages of the disease, in relation to the maintenance of phosphorus and sodium serum levels.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Martínez P.P. & Carvalho M.B. 2010. [Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease.] Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 30(10):868-876. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Área de Clínica Médica de Pequenos Animais, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP 14870-000, Brazil. E-mail: pedromartinezpadua@hotmail.com Na doença renal crônica (DRC) a manutenção da homeostase de água e sódio é o primeiro problema a ser contornado pelo organismo e com o agravamento das lesões renais surgem outros problemas graves relacionados à homeostase de cálcio e fósforo. O presente estudo tem por escopo avaliar a excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio, e o perfil sérico destes eletrólitos em cães normais e em cães com DRC naturalmente adquirida. Foram avaliados três grupos de cães adultos, machos ou fêmeas, de raças variadas. Animais normais compuseram o grupo controle (G1) e os cães com DRC foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com os estágios de comprometimento da função renal (G2 e G3, respectivamente, estágios 1-2 e estágios 3-4, descritos pela IRIS 2006 staging CKD). Os cães do G3 apresentaram aumento das concentrações séricas de cálcio ionizado e fósforo, além de diminuição da concentração sérica de sódio. Quanto à excreção renal dos eletrólitos analisados, os animais dos grupos G1 e G2 apresentaram diminuição de carga filtrada e aumento de excreção fracionada, mas as excreções urinárias não variaram significativamente. Os resultados são indicativos de que os rins de cães com DRC podem manter a excreção urinária dos eletrólitos em valores semelhantes aos dos normais. O mecanismo envolve aumento da excreção fracionada na medida em que haja diminuição da filtração glomerular. Esse processo de compensação, entretanto, pode perder a eficiência nos estágios mais avançados da enfermidade no que se refere à manutenção das concentrações séricas de fósforo e sódio.


#6 - Dosing cardiac markers CK-MB and TnIc and electrolytes in experimental toad envenoming in dogs, 29(8):632-636

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Camplesi A.C., Sakate M., Simão N.M.B. & Moya C.F. 2009. [Dosing cardiac markers CK-MB and TnIc and electrolytes in experimental toad envenoming in dogs.] Dosagem de marcadores cardíacos CK-MB e TnIc e eletrólitos no envenenamento experimental por veneno de sapo em cães. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(8):632-636. Departamento de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP 18600-000, Brazil. E-mail: annecamplesi@yahoo.com.br Among the systemic signs of toad venom (bufotoxin) poisoning in dogs, the cardiotoxic effects are one of the most important. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate potential changes in the cardiac muscle in dogs poisoned experimentally by toad venom and to observe the eletrolyte alterations which may occur in this condition. Twenty dogs divided into control group (n=5) and poisoned group (n=15) were utilized. The toad venom was extracted by manual compression of the paratoidic glands. After general anesthesia, dogs in the control group received placebo and dogs in the poisoned group received the venom by orogastric catheter. Samples for dosage were collected 6 hours and 24 hours after poisoning and 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 hours after poisoning for electrolytes dosage. The Man-Withney test was used for statistical analysis (P<0.05). The poisoned dogs showed (saline) elevated levels of cardiac markers CK-MB and TnIc, confirming the cardiotoxic effect of the bufotoxin. Hypokalemia and hypocalcemia were also observed.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Camplesi A.C., Sakate M., Simão N.M.B. & Moya C.F. 2009. [Dosing cardiac markers CK-MB and TnIc and electrolytes in experimental toad envenoming in dogs.] Dosagem de marcadores cardíacos CK-MB e TnIc e eletrólitos no envenenamento experimental por veneno de sapo em cães. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(8):632-636. Departamento de Clínica Médica Veterinária, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP 18600-000, Brazil. E-mail: annecamplesi@yahoo.com.br Dentre os sinais sistêmicos causados pelo envenenamento por veneno de sapo (bufotoxina) em cães, os efeitos cardiotóxicos são um dos mais importantes. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as potenciais alterações no músculo cardíaco de cães envenenados experimentalmente por veneno de sapo e observar as alterações eletrolíticas que podem ocorrer nesse tipo de envenenamento. Utilizaram-se 20 cães divididos em grupo controle (n=5) e grupo envenenado (n=15). O veneno de sapo foi extraído por meio de compressão manual das glândulas paratóides. Após anestesia geral, os cães do grupo controle receberam placebo (solução fisiológica) e os do grupo envenenado uma alíquota do veneno por sonda orogástrica. As colheitas de sangue para dosagem dos marcadores cardíacos foram realizadas seis e 24 horas após o envenenamento. As colheitas de sangue para dosagem dos eletrólitos foram realizadas antes e duas, quatro, seis e 12 horas após o envenenamento. A análise estatística empregada foi o teste não-paramétrico de Mann-Withney (P<0,05). Os cães envenenados por veneno de sapo apresentaram elevação dos níveis dos marcadores cardíacos CK-MB e TnIc, confirmando a cardiotoxicidade do veneno. Hipocalemia e hipocalcemia foram também observadas nos cães envenenados.


#7 - Blood-gas and electrolyte values for non-anesthetized Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva), p.108-112

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Paula V.V., Fantoni D.T., Otsuki D.A. & Auler Jr J.O.C. 2008. Blood-gas and electrolyte values for non-anesthetized Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(2):108-112. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, BR110 Km 47 s/n, Cx. Postal 137, Presidente Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brazil. E-mail: valeria@ufersa.edu.br The aim was to provide reference data for blood gas/acid-base status and electrolytes for non-anesthetized Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Thirty-five adult parrots from Tietê ecologic park were utilized. Arterial blood (0.3ml) samples were anaerobically collected from the superficial ulnar artery in heparinized (sodium heparin) 1-ml plastic syringes. The samples were immediately analyzed through a portable analyzer (i-STAT*, Abbot, Illinois, USA) with cartridges (EG7+). These data were grouped in such a way as to present both mean and standard deviation: body weight (360±37g), respiratory rate (82±33 b/m), temperature (41.8±0.6°C), hydrogen potential (7.452±0.048), carbon dioxide partial pressure (22.1±4.0mmHg), oxygen partial pressure (98.1±7.6mmHg), base excess (-7.9±3.1), plasma concentration of bicarbonate ions (14.8±2.8mmol/L), oxygen saturation (96.2±1.1%), plasma concentration of sodium (147.4±2.2mmol/L), plasma concentration of potassium (3.5±0.53mmol/L), plasma concentration of calcium (0.8±0.28mmol/L), hematocrit (38.7±6.2%) and concentration of hemoglobin (13.2±2.1g/dl). This study led us to conclude that, although the results obtained showed hypocapnia and low values of bicarbonate and base excess, when compared to other avian species, these data are very similar. Besides, in spite of the equipment being approved only for human beings, it was considered simple and very useful in the analysis of avian blood samples. By using this equipment we were able to provide references data for non-anaesthetized Amazon parrots.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Paula V.V., Fantoni D.T., Otsuki D.A. & Auler Jr J.O.C. 2008. Blood-gas and electrolyte values for non-anesthetized Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(2):108-112. Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, BR110 Km 47 s/n, Cx. Postal 137, Presidente Costa e Silva, Mossoró, RN 59625-900, Brazil. E-mail: valeria@ufersa.edu.br The aim was to provide reference data for blood gas/acid-base status and electrolytes for non-anesthetized Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Thirty-five adult parrots from Tietê ecologic park were utilized. Arterial blood (0.3ml) samples were anaerobically collected from the superficial ulnar artery in heparinized (sodium heparin) 1-ml plastic syringes. The samples were immediately analyzed through a portable analyzer (i-STAT*, Abbot, Illinois, USA) with cartridges (EG7+). These data were grouped in such a way as to present both mean and standard deviation: body weight (360±37g), respiratory rate (82±33 b/m), temperature (41.8±0.6°C), hydrogen potential (7.452±0.048), carbon dioxide partial pressure (22.1±4.0mmHg), oxygen partial pressure (98.1±7.6mmHg), base excess (-7.9±3.1), plasma concentration of bicarbonate ions (14.8±2.8mmol/L), oxygen saturation (96.2±1.1%), plasma concentration of sodium (147.4±2.2mmol/L), plasma concentration of potassium (3.5±0.53mmol/L), plasma concentration of calcium (0.8±0.28mmol/L), hematocrit (38.7±6.2%) and concentration of hemoglobin (13.2±2.1g/dl). This study led us to conclude that, although the results obtained showed hypocapnia and low values of bicarbonate and base excess, when compared to other avian species, these data are very similar. Besides, in spite of the equipment being approved only for human beings, it was considered simple and very useful in the analysis of avian blood samples. By using this equipment we were able to provide references data for non-anaesthetized Amazon parrots.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV