Resultado da pesquisa (12)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa meningoencephalitis

#1 - Etiological, epidemiological, clinical and pathological characterization of meningoencephalitis in cattle by bovine herpesvirus in the State of Goiás, Brazil

Abstract in English:

Twenty six cases of bovine herpetic meningoencephalitis diagnosed from 2010-2016 in Goiás state, Brazil, were studied. Affected cattle were mainly 60-day to 18-month-old. There was no association of the disease with sex and seasonality. The disease was found in all five mesoregions with a higher prevalence in southern and central state of Goiás. Clinical signs more frequently observed included blindness, incoordination, circling, excessive salivation, and ataxia. Main gross findings in the brain were congestion with swelling and flattening of gyri, softening and yellow discoloration of cerebral cortex and hemorrhagic foci. In five cases no gross changes were observed in the brain and in four cases there is no information. The main histopathological changes were in the cortex of telencephalic lobes, especially the frontal and parietal; however less prominent and less frequently found lesions occurred in the thalamus, basal nuclei, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, and hippocampus. All cases presented lymphoplasmocytic meningoencephalitis and intranuclear basophilic inclusion bodies in astrocytes, less commonly in neurons. Other frequent lesions included segmental laminar neuronal necrosis (red neurons), spongiosis, swollen vascular endothelial nuclei, gliosis (focal and diffuse), hypertrophy of astrocytes, infiltration of gitter cells, congestion, and hemorrhage. Lesions less frequently observed were Alzheimer type II astrocytes, residual lesion and neuronophagia. The most frequently affected cortical layers by neuronal necrosis and edema were external and internal granular, molecular, and pyramidal cell layers. Gyri and sulci were equally affected. Of the 26 cases, in 2 (7.69%) the DNA of BoHV-5 was amplified with samples fixed in 10% formalin and paraffin-embedded. DNA of BoHV-1 was identified in another case (3.84%) where, positive to BoHV-1, fresh samples were used.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Foram estudados 26 casos de meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino (BoHV) diagnosticados entre 2010-2016, no Estado de Goiás (GO). A doença acometeu principalmente bovinos jovens, entre 60 dias a 18 meses de idade. Não houve associação entre os casos e o sexo dos bovinos e a sazonalidade. A doença foi observada em todas as cinco Mesorregiões do Estado, com uma frequência maior nas Mesorregiões Sul e Centro. Os sinais clínicos mais frequentemente observados incluíram cegueira, incoordenação, sialorreia e ataxia. As principais alterações macroscópicas observadas incluíram congestão com tumefação e achatamento das circunvoluções, amolecimento e amarelamento do córtex telencefálico e focos de hemorragia. Em cinco encéfalos, não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas e em quatro as alterações não foram informadas. As principais alterações histológicas ocorreram no córtex telencefálico, principalmente o córtex frontal e parietal, mas em alguns casos, lesões de menor intensidade foram também observadas no tálamo, núcleos basais, mesencéfalo, ponte, bulbo, cerebelo e hipocampo. Todos os casos apresentaram meningoencefalite linfoplasmocítica e corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares basofílicos em astrócitos e, eventualmente, em neurônios. Outras lesões frequentes incluíram necrose neuronal laminar segmentar (neurônio vermelho), espongiose, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais, gliose focal ou difusa, hipertrofia de astrócitos, infiltração por células gitter, congestão e hemorragia. Lesões menos comuns incluíram astrócitos Alzheimer tipo II, lesão residual e neuronofagia. A necrose neuronal e o edema (espongiose) foram mais acentuados nas camadas granular externa, molecular, de células piramidais e granular interna dos telencéfalos. Tanto os giros quanto os sulcos foram afetados igualmente. Dos 26 casos, o DNA de BoHV-5 foi amplificado em dois (7,69%) casos, enquanto que o de BoHV-1 foi identificado em um caso (3,84%). Nos casos positivos para BoHV-5 foram usadas amostras fixadas em formol a 10% e incluídas em parafina e amostras congeladas foram utilizadas no caso positivo para BoHV-1.


#2 - Histophilus somni-induced thrombotic meningoencephalitis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil, 35(4):329-336

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Headley S.A., Bracarense A.P.F.R.L., Oliveira V.H.S., Queiroz G.R., Okano W., Alfieri A.F., Flaiban K.K.M.C., Lisbôa J.A.N. & Alfieri A.A. 2015. Histophilus somni-induced thrombotic meningoencephalitis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(4):329-336. Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR-445 Km 380, Cx. Postal 10.011, Londrina, PR 860571-970, Brazil. E-mail: selwyn.headley@uel.br Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME) is a fatal neurological disease of cattle, predominantly from North America, that is caused by Histophilus somni with sporadic descriptions from other countries. This manuscript describes the occurrence of spontaneous TME in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Most cattle had acute neurological manifestations characteristic of brain dysfunction. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were not suggestive of bacterial infections of the brain. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis with vasculitis and thrombosis of small vessels that contained discrete neutrophilic and/or lymphocytic infiltrates admixed with fibrin at the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and trigeminal nerve ganglion of all animals. All tissues from the central nervous system used during this study were previously characterized as negative for rabies virus by the direct immunofluorescence assay. PCR and RT-PCR assays investigated the participation of infectious agents associated with bovine neurological disease by targeting specific genes of H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, bovine herpesvirus -1 and -5, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and ovine herpesvirus-2. PCR and subsequent sequencing resulted in partial fragments of the 16S rRNA gene of H. somni from brain sections of all animals with histopathological diagnosis of TME; all other PCR/RT-PCR assays were negative. These findings confirmed the participation of H. somni in the neuropathological disease observed in these animals, extend the geographical distribution of this disease, and support previous findings of H. somni from Brazil.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Headley S.A., Bracarense A.P.F.R.L., Oliveira V.H.S., Queiroz G.R., Okano W., Alfieri A.F., Flaiban K.K.M.C., Lisbôa J.A.N. & Alfieri A.A. 2015. Histophilus somni-induced thrombotic meningoencephalitis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. [Meningoencefalite trombótica-induzida por Histophilus somni em bovinos da região norte do Paraná.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(4):329-336. Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid, PR-445 Km 380, Cx. Postal 10.011, Londrina, PR 860571-970, Brazil. E-mail: selwyn.headley@uel.br Meningoencefalite trombótica (Thrombotic meningoencephalitis- TME) é uma doença neurológica fatal de bovinos ocasionada por Histophilus somni. A infecção tem sido descrita predominantemente na América do Norte e de forma esporádica em outros países. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar a ocorrência de TME em bovinos da região norte do estado do Paraná, Brasil. A maioria dos animais apresentaram sinais clínicos neurológicos característicos de disfunção cerebral aguda. Análises hematológicas e do fluido cerebrospinal não foram sugestivas de infecção bacteriana do cérebro. A histopatologia revelou meningoencefalite com vasculite e trombose de pequenos vasos com discreto infiltrado neutrofílico e/ou linfocítico mesclada com fibrina no tronco e córtex cerebral e no gânglio do nervo trigêmio de todos os animais. As amostras de sistema nervoso central incluídas nesse estudo foram previamente caracterizadas como negativas para raiva por meio de técnica de imunofluorescência direta. A participação de agentes infecciosos associados à doença neurológica em bovinos foi avaliada por técnicas moleculares como PCR e RT-PCR para amplificação parcial de genes de H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, herpesvírus bovino 1 e 5, vírus da diarreia viral bovina e herpesvírus ovino 2. As seções do cérebro de todos os animais com diagnóstico histopatológico de TME foram positivas em PCR para a detecção do gene 16S rRNA de H. somni. O sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados confirmou a presença de DNA de H. somni nos fragmentos de cérebro avaliados. As reações de PCR/RT-PCR para todos os outros micro-organismos avaliados resultaram negativas. Os resultados desse estudo confirmaram a participação do H. somni nos episódios de doença neurológica observada nos animais avaliados, amplia a distribuição geográfica da TME e ratifica estudos prévios realizados no Brasil que demonstraram a presença de H. somni em outras formas de manifestação clínica das infecções por essa bactéria.


#3 - Histopathological, immunohistochemi- cal, and molecular study of BHV-5 infection in the central nervous system of experimentally infected calves, 35(4):337-343

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Cagnini D.Q., Cunha P.H.J., Pantoja J.C.F., Badial P.R., Oliveira-Filho J.P., Araújo-Junior J.P., Alfeiri A.A. & Borges A.S. 2015. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of BHV-5 infection in the central nervous system of experimentally infected calves. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(4):337-343. Departamento de Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Unesp-Botucatu, Distrito de Rubião Júnior s/n, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brazil. E-mail: asborges@fmvz.unesp.br Bovine meningoencephalitis caused by BHV-5, a double-stranded DNA enveloped virus that belongs to the family Herpesviridae and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, is an important differential diagnosis of central nervous diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the histological changes in the central nervous system of calves experimentally infected with BHV-5 and compare these changes with the PCR and IHC results. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded central nervous system samples from calves previously inoculated with BHV-5 were microscopically evaluated and tested using IHC and PCR. All the animals presented with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. From 18 evaluated areas of each calf, 32.41% and 35.19% were positive by IHC and PCR, respectively. The telencephalon presented more accentuated lesions and positive areas in the PCR than other encephalic areas and was the best sampling area for diagnostic purposes. Positive areas in the IHC and PCR were more injured than IHC and PCR negative areas. The animal with neurological signs showed more PCR- and IHC-positive areas than the other animals.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Cagnini D.Q., Cunha P.H.J., Pantoja J.C.F., Badial P.R., Oliveira-Filho J.P., Araújo-Junior J.P., Alfieri A.A. & Borges A.S. 2015. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of BHV-5 infection in the central nervous system of experimentally infected calves. [Estudo histopatológico, imuno-histoquímico e molecular da infecção por BHV-5 no sistema nervoso central de bovinos experimentalmente infectados.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 35(4):337-343. Departamento de Clínica Veterinária, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Unesp-Botucatu, Distrito de Rubião Júnior s/n, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brazil. E-mail: asborges@fmvz.unesp.br A meningoencefalite bovina causada pelo BHV-5, um vírus DNA fita dupla envelopado que pertence à família Herpesviridae e subfamília Alphaherpesvirinae, é um importante diagnóstico diferencial das doenças do sistema nervoso central. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as alterações histológicas no sistema nervoso central de bovinos experimentalmente infectados com BHV-5 e comparar estas alterações com os resultados de imunoistoquímica (IHQ) e PCR. Amostras do sistema nervoso central de bezerros previamente inoculados com BHV-5 foram microscopicamente avaliadas e submetidas à IHQ e PCR. Todos os animais apresentaram meningoencefalite não-supurativa. Das 18 áreas avaliadas de cada bezerro, 32,41% e 35,13% foram positivas na IHQ e PCR, respectivamente. O telencéfalo apresentou lesões mais acentuadas e foi mais positivo na PCR do que as demais áreas encefálicas e se apresentou como a melhor área para coleta de material para o diagnóstico. As áreas positivas na IHQ e na PCR apresentaram lesões mais acentuadas do que as áreas negativas para as mesmas técnicas. O animal com sinais neurológicos apresentou mais áreas positivas para PCR e IHQ do que os demais animais.


#4 - Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: 1082 cases, 33(10):1183-1194

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Ribas N.L.K.S., Carvalho R.I., Santos A.C., Valençoela R.A., Gouveia A.F., Castro M.B., Mori A.E. & Lemos R.A.A. 2013. [Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: 1082 cases.] Doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos no Mato Grosso do Sul: 1082 casos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(10):1183-1194. Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900, Brazil. E-mail: lap.famez@ufms.br The aim of this study was to describe the types of diseases that affect the nervous system of cattle from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A retrospective study from January 2008 to December 2012 was perfomed, based on reports of cattle autopsies autopsy carried out by the Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica (LAP), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FAMEZ), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS). The material came from cases attended and forwarded to LAP by practicing veterinarians autonomous and from the official veterinary service. From 1028 cases studied, 588 presented a history of neurological clinical signs, 341 (53.75%) of which were diagnosed as affected bytrue neurological disease, and 247 (46.25%) had inconclusive diagnosis. The clinical records were reviewed to determine epidemiology, clinical signs, and gross and histopathological features. The most frequent diseases were botulism (16.67%), rabies (15.92%), polioencephalomalacia (8.05%), and herpesviral meningoencephalitis (4.31%). Other conditions were diagnosed occasionally, and included non suppurative meningoencephalitis (2.62%), suppurative meningoencephalitis (1.50%), brain abscesses and osteomyelitis caused by spinal cord compression (1.31%), tetanus (1.12%), hypothermia (0.94%), cerebral babesiosis (0.75%), malignant catarrhal fever (0.37%), and cases suggestive of oxalate poisoning (0.19%). No cases with lesions that may suggest of bovine spongiform encephalopathy were observed.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Ribas N.L.K.S., Carvalho R.I., Santos A.C., Valençoela R.A., Gouveia A.F., Castro M.B., Mori A.E. & Lemos R.A.A. 2013. [Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: 1082 cases.] Doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos no Mato Grosso do Sul: 1082 casos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(10):1183-1194. Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS 79070-900, Brazil. E-mail: lap.famez@ufms.br Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2012 com base nos laudos de necropsia do Laboratório de Anatomia Patológica (LAP) da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia (FAMEZ), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), com o intuito de descrever quais as doenças que afetam o sistema nervoso de bovinos que ocorrem no Mato Grosso do Sul. Os casos consistiam de acompanhados por técnicos do LAP e encaminhados por médicos veterinários que atuam no campo (autônomos ou do serviço veterinário oficial). De 1082 materiais analisados, 588 apresentavam histórico de sinais clínicos neurológicos. Destes, 341 (53,75%) tiveram diagnóstico correspondente a doenças neurológicas e 247 (46,25%) tiveram diagnóstico inconclusivos. As fichas clínico epidemiológicas foram revisadas para determinar dados referentes a epidemiologia, aos sinais clínicos e às alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas. O botulismo (16,67%), a raiva (15,92%), a polioencefalomalacia (8,05%) e a encefalite por herpesvirus bovino (4,31%) foram as enfermidade de maior frequência. Outras doenças como meningoencefalite não supurativa (2,62%), meningoencefalite supurativa (1,50%), abscessos cerebrais e osteomielite por compressão medular (1,31%), tétano (1,12%), hipotermia (0,94%), babesiose cerebral (0,75%), febre catarral maligna (0,37%) e lesões sugestivas de intoxicação por oxalato (0,19%) foram ocasionalmente diagnosticadas. Em nenhum dos casos foram observadas lesões que pudessem sugerir encefalopatia espongiforme bovina.


#5 - Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature, 33(7):890-900

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Brum J.S., Galiza G.J.N., Lucena R.B. & Barros C.S.L. 2013. [Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature.] Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(7):890-900. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Salt poisoning occurs commonly in pigs by excessive intake of sodium chloride or by a period water deprivation for followed by free access to water. The objective of this work is to aggregate data from cases of salt poisoning, combining existing data in the literature and describe the main clinical and pathological features observed. We reviewed five outbreaks, one of which was carefully monitored. In three of them the intake of sodium chloride had been determined. Clinical signs were basically seizures with the lateral decubitus with paddling movements. Circling was observed in some cases. Sodium determination in muscle of and liver fragments, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and aqueous humor showed increased concentrations of this ion. There was eosinopenia characterizing increased recruitment eosinophils from the circulation into the brain. In all outbreaks eosinophil infiltration was observed in the meninges and the Virchow-Robin space of the cerebral cortex. Cortical laminar necrosis was more pronounced in the brain of pigs from one of the outbreaks in which animals were sick for six days. The combination of these two lesions characterizes the disease. The changes observed result from high concentrations of sodium in the brain causing cause edema that leads to increased intracranial pressure and decreased perfusion to the brain tissue causing diffuse ischemia and neuronal necrosis, with consequent malacia.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Brum J.S., Galiza G.J.N., Lucena R.B. & Barros C.S.L. 2013. [Salt poisoning in swine: epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects and brief review of the literature.] Intoxicação por sal em suínos: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos e breve revisão de literatura. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(7):890-900. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br ntoxicação por sal ocorre comumente em suínos por ingestão excessiva de cloreto de sódio ou por privação de água por um período de tempo, seguido de um livre acesso a água abundante. O objetivo deste trabalho é agregar dados de casos de intoxicação por sal, diagnosticados, compilar dados já existentes na literatura e caracterizar as principais alterações clínicas e patológicas observadas. Foram revisados cinco surtos, sendo que um deles foi minuciosamente acompanhado. Em três deles a ingestão de cloreto de sódio foi determinada. Os sinais clínicos eram basicamente convulsões, com intensos tremores musculares e desenvolvimento de opistótono. Os animais permaneciam em decúbito lateral, fazendo movimentos de pedalagem. Alguns andavam em círculos. Dosagens de sódio em fragmentos de músculo e de fígado, no soro, líquor e humor aquoso revelaram concentrações aumentadas do íon. A quantidade de eosinófilos circulantes foi baixa caracterizando grande recrutamento dessas células para o encéfalo. Em todos os surtos foi observada infiltração de eosinófilos nas leptomeninges e no espaço de Virchow-Robin do córtex cerebral. Necrose cortical laminar foi observada mais detalhadamente em um dos surtos onde os suínos estavam doentes há seis dias. A combinação dessas duas lesões caracteriza a doença. Todas as alterações observadas podem ser explicadas pela provável patogenia da doença em que as elevadas concentrações de sódio causam edema cerebral que leva ao aumento da pressão intracraniana e decréscimo da perfusão para o cérebro causando isquemia difusa e necrose neuronal, com consequente malacia.


#6 - Meningoencephalitis in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes, 30(1):51-56

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Rissi D.R., Kommers G.D., Marcolongo-Pereira C., Schild A.L. & Barros C.S.L. 2010. [Meningoencephalitis in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes.] Meningoencefalite por Listeria monocytogenes em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 30(1):51-56. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Seven cases of neurological disease in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes in Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná state, southern Brazil are described. The cases occurred between 2000 and 2007 and 12-24-month-old sheep were affected. Overall morbidity and lethality rates were 3.15% and 100%, respectively. Cases occurred in the summer and early spring. When this information was available, affected sheep had not been fed with silage. In three farms there were close contact among affected sheep and other species. Clinical signs were characterized by recumbency (7/7), head tilt (4/7), incoordination (3/7), depression (3/7), circling (2/7), unilateral blindness, wasting, fever, midriasis, paddling, opisthotonus, hind or hind and fore limb paralysis, drooling, and muscle tremors (1/7 each). Clinical evolution varied from 12 hours to three days. Histological findings consisted of predominantly unilateral, micro-abscedative encephalitis with variable degrees of gliosis and degenerative lesions characterized by axonal spheroids and infiltration by Gitter cells. These lesions were observed extending from medulla oblongata to mesencephalon. Listeria monocytogenes antigen was showed by imunohistochemistry in routinely processed sections of brainstem from all seven affected sheep. The diagnostic was based on epidemiological, clinical, and pathological findings and confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) using polyclonal anti-L. monocytogenes antibody.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Rissi D.R., Kommers G.D., Marcolongo-Pereira C., Schild A.L. & Barros C.S.L. 2010. [Meningoencephalitis in sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes.] Meningoencefalite por Listeria monocytogenes em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 30(1):51-56. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br São descritos sete casos de doença neurológica em ovinos por Listeria monocytogenes no Rio Grande do Sul e Paraná entre 2000 e 2007. Foram afetados ovinos com idades entre 12-24 meses. Os casos ocorreram no verão e início da primavera e os índices gerais de morbidade e letalidade foram de 3,15% e 100%, respectivamente. Quando essa informação estava disponível, nenhum dos ovinos afetados era alimentado com silagem. Em três propriedades havia contato próximo dos ovinos afetados com outras espécies. A evolução do quadro clínico foi de 12 horas a três dias e os sinais clínicos foram caracterizados por decúbito (7/7), desvio da cabeça (4/7), incoordenação (3/7), depressão (3/7), andar em círculos (2/7), cegueira unilateral, emagrecimento progressivo, febre, midríase, movimentos de pedalagem, nistagmo lateral, opistótono, paralisia flácida dos membros pélvicos ou dos quatro membros, salivação excessiva e tremores (1/7 cada). Histologicamente observou-se encefalite com microabscessos, predominantemente unilateral com variáveis graus de gliose e alterações degenerativas como esferóides axonais e infiltração de células Gitter. As lesões se estendiam desde a medula oblonga até o mesencéfalo. Antígenos de Listeria monocytogenes foram detectados por imuno-histoquímica em seções de tronco encefálico de todos os ovinos afetados. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados epidemiológicos e clinico-patológicos, e confirmado pela imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) utilizando anticorpo policlonal anti-L. monocytogenes.


#7 - Meningoencephalitis by bovine herpesvirus-5, p. 251-260

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Rissi D.R., Rech R.R., Flores E.F., Kommers G.D. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Meningoencephalitis by bovine herpesvirus-5.] Meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(7):251-260. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5) is an often fatal, acute or subacute infectious disease that affects mainly young cattle under stressing conditions. The disease has been recognized in several Brazilian regions and in other parts of the world. BoHV-5 is a double stranded DNA virus member of the Herpesviridae family and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The virus is characterized by rapid and lytic replication in cell cultures and by the ability to establish lifelong latent infection in sensory nerve ganglia of the host. BoHV-5 is transmitted mainly by direct and indirect contact and replicates acutely in the oral, nasal, oropharingeal or ocular mucosae. After primary replication, the virus invades nerve endings and is transported to the neuron cell bodies of the sensory ganglia where it replicates actively and/or establishes latency. Viral invasion of the brain may result in massive virus replication and production of neurological disease. Virtually all cattle developing neurological disease die of meningoencephalitis; yet the infection may be subclinical in some animals. These animals recover and become latently infected. Viral dissemination within a herd is facilitated by conditions such as crowding, introduction of cattle from other herds and weaning of calves in ages that coincide with decrease of passive immunity. Certain natural or induced conditions may reactivate the latent virus and favor its transmission and dissemination to other susceptible individuals. The disease may occur as outbreaks or as sporadic cases, with morbidity rates ranging of 0.05%-5%; lethality is almost always 100%. Clinical signs include depression, nasal and ocular discharge, grinding of teeth, circling, blindness, fever, paddling movements, disphagia, abdominal pain, nystagmus, muscle tremors, drooling, incoordinated gait, opisthotonus, head pressing, falls and convulsions. Clinical course is usually 1-15 days. Necropsy findings may be absent but often there is swollen of the rostral portions of the cerebral cortex and flattening of gyri, with softening and segmental yellow discoloration (malacia). As the disease progresses the affected areas become gelatinous and grey and, in advanced cases, there is segmental loss of the cerebral cortex of the frontal lobe of the brain (residual lesion). In several cases there is malacia of the basal nuclei and of the thalamus. Histologically, there is necrotizing non-suppurative meningoencephalitis affecting mainly the cerebral cortex of the frontal lobe associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and astrocytes, although the frequency of the inclusion bodies is inconsistent. The diagnosis of meningoencephalitis by BoHV-5 should be based on epidemiology, clinical signs, necropsy and histological findings. The diagnosis should be confirmed by viral isolation in cell culture and/or by detection of viral antigens in brain sections or in exfoliated cells from nasal secretions. The identification and characterization of BoHV-5 can be done by the use of monoclonal antibodies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or by restriction enzyme analysis of the viral genome. There is no specific treatment for the disease. As BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 are antigenically related, vaccination using BoHV-1 vaccines may be recommended as a means of reducing the losses caused by BoHV-5 infection, mainly during outbreaks of neurologic disease. Additionally, measures such as serologic testing of new additions to the herd; and management practices to prevent stress and to reduce conditions for virus dissemination among animals may help in reducing the incidence and the consequences of BoHV-5 infection and disease.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Rissi D.R., Rech R.R., Flores E.F., Kommers G.D. & Barros C.S.L. 2007. [Meningoencephalitis by bovine herpesvirus-5.] Meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(7):251-260. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5) is an often fatal, acute or subacute infectious disease that affects mainly young cattle under stressing conditions. The disease has been recognized in several Brazilian regions and in other parts of the world. BoHV-5 is a double stranded DNA virus member of the Herpesviridae family and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The virus is characterized by rapid and lytic replication in cell cultures and by the ability to establish lifelong latent infection in sensory nerve ganglia of the host. BoHV-5 is transmitted mainly by direct and indirect contact and replicates acutely in the oral, nasal, oropharingeal or ocular mucosae. After primary replication, the virus invades nerve endings and is transported to the neuron cell bodies of the sensory ganglia where it replicates actively and/or establishes latency. Viral invasion of the brain may result in massive virus replication and production of neurological disease. Virtually all cattle developing neurological disease die of meningoencephalitis; yet the infection may be subclinical in some animals. These animals recover and become latently infected. Viral dissemination within a herd is facilitated by conditions such as crowding, introduction of cattle from other herds and weaning of calves in ages that coincide with decrease of passive immunity. Certain natural or induced conditions may reactivate the latent virus and favor its transmission and dissemination to other susceptible individuals. The disease may occur as outbreaks or as sporadic cases, with morbidity rates ranging of 0.05%-5%; lethality is almost always 100%. Clinical signs include depression, nasal and ocular discharge, grinding of teeth, circling, blindness, fever, paddling movements, disphagia, abdominal pain, nystagmus, muscle tremors, drooling, incoordinated gait, opisthotonus, head pressing, falls and convulsions. Clinical course is usually 1-15 days. Necropsy findings may be absent but often there is swollen of the rostral portions of the cerebral cortex and flattening of gyri, with softening and segmental yellow discoloration (malacia). As the disease progresses the affected areas become gelatinous and grey and, in advanced cases, there is segmental loss of the cerebral cortex of the frontal lobe of the brain (residual lesion). In several cases there is malacia of the basal nuclei and of the thalamus. Histologically, there is necrotizing non-suppurative meningoencephalitis affecting mainly the cerebral cortex of the frontal lobe associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and astrocytes, although the frequency of the inclusion bodies is inconsistent. The diagnosis of meningoencephalitis by BoHV-5 should be based on epidemiology, clinical signs, necropsy and histological findings. The diagnosis should be confirmed by viral isolation in cell culture and/or by detection of viral antigens in brain sections or in exfoliated cells from nasal secretions. The identification and characterization of BoHV-5 can be done by the use of monoclonal antibodies, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or by restriction enzyme analysis of the viral genome. There is no specific treatment for the disease. As BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 are antigenically related, vaccination using BoHV-1 vaccines may be recommended as a means of reducing the losses caused by BoHV-5 infection, mainly during outbreaks of neurologic disease. Additionally, measures such as serologic testing of new additions to the herd; and management practices to prevent stress and to reduce conditions for virus dissemination among animals may help in reducing the incidence and the consequences of BoHV-5 infection and disease.


#8 - Meningoencefalite e polioencefalomalacia causadas por Herpesvírus bovino-5 no Estado do Pará

Abstract in English:

Riet-Correa G., Duarte M.D., Barbosa J.D., Oliveira C.M.C., Cerqueira V.D., Brito M.F. & Riet-Correa F. 2006. [Meningoencephalitis and polioencephalomalacia caused by Bovine herpesvirus-5 in the state of Pará, northern Brazil.] Meningoencefalite e polioencefalomalacia causadas por Herpesvírus bovino-5 no Estado do Pará. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 26(1):44-46. Central de Diagnóstico Veterinário, Universidade Federal do Pará, Maximino Porpino 1000, Castanhal, PA 68740-080, Brazil. E-mail: griet@ufpa.br Four outbreaks of meningoencephalitis in 1 to 2 years old cattle caused by Bovine herpesvirus-5 are reported in four municipalities in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In three outbreaks only one animal was affected, in another 3 cattle were affected. Main clinical signs were incoordination, dullness, blindness, recumbence, and opisthotonus. Death occurred after a clinical manifestation period of 3-4 days. Softening and yellowish areas were observed grossly in the cerebral cortex. The histology revealed poliencephalomalacia in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and basal nuclei, and non suppurative encephalitis and meningitis, and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes. The diagnosis was based on the typical microscopic lesions.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Riet-Correa G., Duarte M.D., Barbosa J.D., Oliveira C.M.C., Cerqueira V.D., Brito M.F. & Riet-Correa F. 2006. [Meningoencephalitis and polioencephalomalacia caused by Bovine herpesvirus-5 in the state of Pará, northern Brazil.] Meningoencefalite e polioencefalomalacia causadas por Herpesvírus bovino-5 no Estado do Pará. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 26(1):44-46. Central de Diagnóstico Veterinário, Universidade Federal do Pará, Maximino Porpino 1000, Castanhal, PA 68740-080, Brazil. E-mail: griet@ufpa.br Four outbreaks of meningoencephalitis in 1 to 2 years old cattle caused by Bovine herpesvirus-5 are reported in four municipalities in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In three outbreaks only one animal was affected, in another 3 cattle were affected. Main clinical signs were incoordination, dullness, blindness, recumbence, and opisthotonus. Death occurred after a clinical manifestation period of 3-4 days. Softening and yellowish areas were observed grossly in the cerebral cortex. The histology revealed poliencephalomalacia in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and basal nuclei, and non suppurative encephalitis and meningitis, and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes. The diagnosis was based on the typical microscopic lesions.


#9 - Meningoencefalite e encefalomalacia por Herpesvírus bovino-5: distribuição das lesões no sistema nervoso central de bovinos naturalmente infectados

Abstract in English:

Elias F., Schild A.L. & Riet-Correa F. 2004. [Bovine herpesvirus type-5 meningoencephalitis and malacia: histological lesions distribution in the central nervous system of naturally infected cattle.] Meningoencefalite e encefalomalacia por Herpesvírus bovino-5: distribuição das lesões no sistema nervoso central de bovinos naturalmente infectados. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3):123-131. Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, UFPel, Cx. Postal 354, Pelotas, RS 96010-900, Brazil. E-mail: alschild@terra.com.br The distribution of the histological lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle naturally infected by bovine herpes virus type-5 (BHV-5) was determined in 12 affected calves from 10 outbreaks of the disease diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory (LRD) at Pelotas University, from 1986 to 2003. The epidemiological data, clinical signs and duration of clinical course were obtained from the files of LRD. Transversal sections were performed at different levels in 10% formalin-fixed CNS. The sections were made in the frontal, parietal, temporal e occipital lobes of the telencephalic hemispheres, basal ganglia and internal capsule, thalamus, anterior colliculus, pons, cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Paraffin embedded tissues were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The severity and distribution of the inflammatory and malacic lesions were evaluated in all sections. These lesions were related with the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease. The outbreaks of the disease were observed in different seasons of the year. Affected animals were 2 to 24-month-old, of different breeds and both sexes. Gross lesions characterized by yellow and depressed areas in the cerebral cortex were observed in five calves. In two of them, similar lesions were additionally observed in thalamus, basal nuclei, and internal capsule. Congestion and multifocal hemorrhages were observed in most cases. The histological lesions were characterized by non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in all sections of CNS, but more severe in the frontal cortex. Focal or widespread malacia with infiltration of Gitter cells were observed in all sections of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, internal capsule, and thalamus. In some cases mild malacia was also observed in the rostral colliculi, pons, medulla, cerebellum and cervical spinal cord. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in all cases studied; they were frequent in regions of the cerebral cortex near mild to moderate inflammatory or malacic lesions. In two cases the inclusion bodies were also seen in the basal ganglia and thalamus. The severity of the histological lesions was not proportional with the clinical course of the disease. The presence of lesions of malacia in different regions of the CNS, an aspect not mentioned in most reports of BHV-5 infections, could be due to variable pathogenicity of different virus isolates. Alternatively, it is possible that BHV-5 encephalitis occurs due to the reactivation of the virus in cattle previously affected by polioencefalomacia; this last sequence of events was already demonstrated experimentally by our research group.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Elias F., Schild A.L. & Riet-Correa F. 2004. [Bovine herpesvirus type-5 meningoencephalitis and malacia: histological lesions distribution in the central nervous system of naturally infected cattle.] Meningoencefalite e encefalomalacia por Herpesvírus bovino-5: distribuição das lesões no sistema nervoso central de bovinos naturalmente infectados. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3):123-131. Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico, Faculdade de Veterinária, UFPel, Cx. Postal 354, Pelotas, RS 96010-900, Brazil. E-mail: alschild@terra.com.br The distribution of the histological lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) of cattle naturally infected by bovine herpes virus type-5 (BHV-5) was determined in 12 affected calves from 10 outbreaks of the disease diagnosed by the Regional Diagnostic Laboratory (LRD) at Pelotas University, from 1986 to 2003. The epidemiological data, clinical signs and duration of clinical course were obtained from the files of LRD. Transversal sections were performed at different levels in 10% formalin-fixed CNS. The sections were made in the frontal, parietal, temporal e occipital lobes of the telencephalic hemispheres, basal ganglia and internal capsule, thalamus, anterior colliculus, pons, cerebellar peduncles, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Paraffin embedded tissues were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The severity and distribution of the inflammatory and malacic lesions were evaluated in all sections. These lesions were related with the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease. The outbreaks of the disease were observed in different seasons of the year. Affected animals were 2 to 24-month-old, of different breeds and both sexes. Gross lesions characterized by yellow and depressed areas in the cerebral cortex were observed in five calves. In two of them, similar lesions were additionally observed in thalamus, basal nuclei, and internal capsule. Congestion and multifocal hemorrhages were observed in most cases. The histological lesions were characterized by non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in all sections of CNS, but more severe in the frontal cortex. Focal or widespread malacia with infiltration of Gitter cells were observed in all sections of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, internal capsule, and thalamus. In some cases mild malacia was also observed in the rostral colliculi, pons, medulla, cerebellum and cervical spinal cord. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in all cases studied; they were frequent in regions of the cerebral cortex near mild to moderate inflammatory or malacic lesions. In two cases the inclusion bodies were also seen in the basal ganglia and thalamus. The severity of the histological lesions was not proportional with the clinical course of the disease. The presence of lesions of malacia in different regions of the CNS, an aspect not mentioned in most reports of BHV-5 infections, could be due to variable pathogenicity of different virus isolates. Alternatively, it is possible that BHV-5 encephalitis occurs due to the reactivation of the virus in cattle previously affected by polioencefalomacia; this last sequence of events was already demonstrated experimentally by our research group.


#10 - Meningoencefalite granulomatosa em bovinos em pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp)

Abstract in English:

Rech R.R, Fighera R.A., Oliveira F.N. & Barros C.S.L. 2004. [Granulomatous meningoencephalitis in cattle grazing vetch (Vicia spp).] Meningoencefalite granulomatosa em bovinos em pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3): 169-172. Depto Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Granulomatous meningoencephalitis was observed in 7 out of 8 adult dairy cows affected by vetch-associated systemic granulomatous disease, although there was no neurological signs associated with the condition. The cellular inflammatory infiltrates were located in the leptomeninges and as perivascular cuffings within the brain and consisted of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasm cells and eosinophils. These inflammatory changes varied from mild to severe from animal to animal and among different brain regions of the same animal. Perivascular cuffings were usually more marked than the leptomeningeal infiltrates. Affected brain regions, in decreasing order of intensity, included diencephalon through the level of massa intermedia, mesencephalon at the level of rostral colliculi, pons and cerebellar peduncles, medulla at the level of obex, frontal lobe at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum, and cerebellum. The character and the distribution of the inflammatory changes are emphasized regarding the differential diagnosis with other diseases and lesions of the bovine central nervous system in the context of the Brazilian surveillance program for bovine spongiform encephalopath.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Rech R.R, Fighera R.A., Oliveira F.N. & Barros C.S.L. 2004. [Granulomatous meningoencephalitis in cattle grazing vetch (Vicia spp).] Meningoencefalite granulomatosa em bovinos em pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 24(3): 169-172. Depto Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Granulomatous meningoencephalitis was observed in 7 out of 8 adult dairy cows affected by vetch-associated systemic granulomatous disease, although there was no neurological signs associated with the condition. The cellular inflammatory infiltrates were located in the leptomeninges and as perivascular cuffings within the brain and consisted of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasm cells and eosinophils. These inflammatory changes varied from mild to severe from animal to animal and among different brain regions of the same animal. Perivascular cuffings were usually more marked than the leptomeningeal infiltrates. Affected brain regions, in decreasing order of intensity, included diencephalon through the level of massa intermedia, mesencephalon at the level of rostral colliculi, pons and cerebellar peduncles, medulla at the level of obex, frontal lobe at the level of the genu of the corpus callosum, and cerebellum. The character and the distribution of the inflammatory changes are emphasized regarding the differential diagnosis with other diseases and lesions of the bovine central nervous system in the context of the Brazilian surveillance program for bovine spongiform encephalopath.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV