Resultado da pesquisa (7)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa bats

#1 - Quantification of the neurons of myenteric plexus of the bat molossus rufus

Abstract in English:

There are no studies that characterize the enteric nervous system (ENS) bats. The organization and density of myenteric neurons may vary according to the animal species, as well as the segment of the digestive tube considered. The nitric oxide is one of the key neurotransmitters present in the myenteric neurons, acting as a mediator in the smooth muscle relaxation. These neurons are evidenced by immunohistochemistry of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. In this sense, this study aimed to characterize the total neuronal population and subpopulation NADPH-d+ of the myenteric plexus present in the jejunum of the insectivore species Molossus rufus quantitatively. Five specimens were collected of M. rufus in a buffer area of the “Reserva Biológica das Perobas” in the microregion of Cianorte/PR. After the euthanasia, in a chamber saturated with isoflurane, segments were collected from the small intestine corresponding to the jejunum intended for two techniques for neuronal marking, Giemsa and NADPH-diaphorase, and a fragment to the histological technique of hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome. All the procedures were approved by the “Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais Unipar” (CEUA - protocol No. 34347/2017) and the “Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade” (ICMBio - protocol No. 60061-1) The histological sections allowed to highlight the location of the myenteric plexus between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic. The myenteric plexus had an average of total neuronal population (neurons Giemsa+) of 279.23 neurons/mm2, being the nitrergic neurons (neurons NADPH-d+) represented 20.4% of this total population, with an average of 58.14 neuron/mm2. Therefore, the collected data are consistent with previous studies in other mammalian species concerning the location of the myenteric plexus, as well as the neural myenteric proportion NADPH-d+ compared with the population of neurons Giemsa+. The gaps in the knowledge of ENS of bats limits comparative intraspecific and interspecific studies.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Não há estudos que caracterizem o sistema nervoso entérico (SNE) destes animais, configurando uma lacuna no conhecimento quanto à biologia destes indivíduos. A organização e densidade dos neurônios mientéricos podem variar de acordo com a espécie animal bem como o segmento do tubo digestório considerado. O óxido nítrico é um dos principais neurotransmissores presentes nos neurônios mientéricos, atuando como mediador no relaxamento do músculo liso gastrointestinal, de modo que estes neurônios são evidenciados igualmente pela imunohistoquímica da óxido nítrico-sintase (NOS) ou pela histoquímica da NADPH-diaforase. Neste sentido, objetivou-se caracterizar quantitativamente a população neuronal total e subpopulação NADPH-d+ do plexo mientérico presente no jejuno da espécie Molossus rufus de hábito alimentar insetívoro. Foram coletados cinco espécimes de M. rufus em área de amortecimento da Reserva Biológica das Perobas na microrregião de Cianorte/PR. Após a eutanásia, em câmara saturada com isoflurano, foram coletados segmentos do intestino delgado correspondentes ao jejuno destinados a duas técnicas para marcação neuronal, Giemsa e NADPH-diaforase e, um fragmento para a técnica histológica de hematoxilina-eosina e tricômio de Masson. Todos os procedimentos realizados foram aprovados pelo Comitê de Ética no Uso de Animais da Unipar (CEUA - protocolo nº 34347/2017) e pelo Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio - protocolo nº 60061-1) Os cortes histológicos possibilitaram evidenciar a localização do plexo mientérico entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular. Neurônios Giemsa+ apresentaram uma média de 279,23 neurônios/mm2, já os neurônios nitrérgicos apresentaram em média 20,4% da população neuronal mientérica total, sendo evidenciados 58,14 neurônios NADPH-d+/mm2. Portanto, os dados coletados mostram-se condizentes com estudos anteriores em outras espécies de mamíferos quanto à localização do plexo mientérico, bem como, a proporção neuronal mientérica NADPH-d+ comparada com a população de neurônios Giemsa+. As lacunas existentes quanto ao conhecimento do SNE de morcegos limita possíveis inferências em comparativo intraespecífico e interespecífico.


#2 - Bacterial resistance in bats from the Phyllostomidae family and its relationship with unique health

Abstract in English:

The Phyllostomidae family is important among the bats found in Brazil, with several species and diverse eating habits, and is the only one to have frugivorous representatives. These bats can be found in urban and in wild life environments in search for the best reproductive and feeding conditions. The versatility of environments can be associated with the incidence and/or distribution of some diseases through pathogenic agents. The present paper has the purpose to identify the oral and perianal microbiota and to detect the bacterial resistance of frugivorous bats captured near communities inhabited by humans in the northwestern region of the state of Paraná. A total of 68 bats were captured, belonging to four species of the Phyllostomidae family, namely Artibeus lituratus, Artibeus planirostris, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lillium, originated from forest fragments in the micro region of Umuarama, state of Paraná. A total of 64 isolates from oral bacteria and 39 from perianal region were submitted to identification. They were later submitted to a susceptibility test to 22 human and veterinary antimicrobials. The most prevalent bacteria were Escherichia coli 33.3% in the oral region, and 35.90% in the perianal region, Enterobacter aerogenes 12.7% and 5.13%, Enterobacter agglomerans 7.9% and 10.25%, and Serratia liquefaciens 9.5% and 5.13% in the oral and perianal region respectively. All bat species studied had resistant strains, with a few of them presenting multi-resistance to antimicrobials. The species with the highest multi-resistance index to antimicrobials was Carollia perspicillata, with three strains of the oral region resistant to 15 antimicrobials; it also presented two strains in the perianal region, which were resistant to 13 and 10 antimicrobials respectively. Based on the results found, it is possible to conclude that the oral and perianal microbiota of bats is composed of several enterobacterial species resistant to one or several antimicrobials used in human and veterinarian medicine. This is an issue and a future warning for unique health, since high percentages of resistance were found against antimicrobials broadly used, such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and amoxicillin+clavulonate.

Abstract in Portuguese:

A família Phyllostomidae se destaca entre as famílias de morcegos encontrados no Brasil, com diversificadas espécies e hábitos alimentares, sendo a única a apresentar representantes frugívoros, podendo ser encontrada tanto em meio urbano, como de vida livre, em busca de melhores condições reprodutivas e alimentares. Essa versatilidade de ambientes pode estar associada à incidência e/ou distribuição de determinadas doenças por agentes patogênicos. O presente trabalho objetivou identificar a microbiota oral e perianal e detectar a resistência bacteriana em morcegos frugívoros capturados próximos às comunidades habitadas pelo homem na região noroeste do estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 68 morcegos, de quatro espécies da família Phyllostomidae, são eles Artibeus lituratus, Artibeus planirostris, Carollia perspicillata e Sturnira lillium, oriundos de fragmentos de Mata da microrregião de Umuarama, estado do Paraná. Um total de 64 isolados de bactérias da região oral e 39 da região perianal foram submetidos, identificação e posteriormente teste de susceptibilidade a 22 antimicrobianos de uso humano e veterinário. As bactérias mais prevalentes foram Escherichia coli 33,3% na região da boca e 35,90% na região perianal, Enterobacter aerogenes 12,7% e 5,13%, Enterobacter agglomerans 7,9% e 10,25% e Serratia liquefaciens 9,5% e 5,13% na região da boca e perianal, respectivamente. Todas as espécies de morcegos estudadas apresentaram cepas que foram resistentes, e algumas multirresistência aos antimicrobianos. A espécie que apresentou maior índice de multirresistência aos antimicrobianos foi Carollia perspicillata, com três cepas na região oral resistente a 15 antimicrobianos, e duas na perianal, com resistência a 13 e 10 antimicrobianos respectivamente. Baseados nos resultados encontrados, é possível concluir que a microbiota oral e perianal de morcegos, é composta por diversas espécies de enterobactérias, resistentes a um, ou vários antimicrobianos utilizados na medicina humana e veterinária, tornando-se um problema, e um alerta futuro para a saúde única, uma vez que foram encontrados elevados percentuais de resistência contra antimicrobianos utilizados em larga escala tais como ampicilina, amoxicilina e amoxicilina+clavulonato.


#3 - Molecular detection of Neorickettsia risticii in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from Buenos Aires, Argentina, 33(5):648-650

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Cicuttin G.L., Boeri E.J., Beltrán F.J. & Gury Dohmen F.E. 2013. Molecular detection of Neorickettsia risticii in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(5):648-650. Sección Serología y Pruebas Biológicas, División Inmunología y Diagnóstico, Instituto de Zoonosis Luis Pasteur, Av. Díaz Vélez 4821, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires C1405DCD, Argentina. E-mail: gcicuttin@gmail.com Neorickettsia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac Horse Fever, a severe febrile disease affecting horses, transmitted by trematodes species with a complex life cycle. A total of 30 insectivorous bats (Brazilian free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis) were analyzed by PCR for presence of genus Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia and Rickettsia. Three samples showed positive reactions for genus Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Neorickettsia, and the sequences were 99.67% identical to Neorickettsia risticii. The role of bats in the life cycle of N. risticii has yet to be elucidated; however bats may be reservoirs for this bacterium. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of N. risticii in Argentina.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Cicuttin G.L., Boeri E.J., Beltrán F.J. & Gury Dohmen F.E. 2013. Molecular detection of Neorickettsia risticii in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 33(5):648-650. Sección Serología y Pruebas Biológicas, División Inmunología y Diagnóstico, Instituto de Zoonosis Luis Pasteur, Av. Díaz Vélez 4821, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires C1405DCD, Argentina. E-mail: gcicuttin@gmail.com Neorickettsia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac Horse Fever, a severe febrile disease affecting horses, transmitted by trematodes species with a complex life cycle. A total of 30 insectivorous bats (Brazilian free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis) were analyzed by PCR for presence of genus Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia and Rickettsia. Three samples showed positive reactions for genus Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Neorickettsia, and the sequences were 99.67% identical to Neorickettsia risticii. The role of bats in the life cycle of N. risticii has yet to be elucidated; however bats may be reservoirs for this bacterium. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of N. risticii in Argentina.


#4 - Detection of rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA in several organs outside the central nervous system in naturally-infected vampire bats, 31(10):922-925

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Vieira L.F.P., Pereira S.R.F.G., Galante A.C., Castilho J.G., Oliveira R.N., Brandão P.E. & Kotait I. 2011. Detection of rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA in several organs outside the central nervous system in naturally-infected vampire bats. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(10):922-925. Setor de Virologia e Viroses, Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque Califórnia, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-602, Brazil. E-mail: luizuenf@yahoo.com.br Rabies is a neurological disease, but the rabies virus spread to several organs outside the central nervous system (CNS). The rabies virus antigen or RNA has been identified from the salivary glands, the lungs, the kidneys, the heart and the liver. This work aimed to identify the presence of the rabies virus in non-neuronal organs from naturally-infected vampire bats and to study the rabies virus in the salivary glands of healthy vampire bats. Out of the five bats that were positive for rabies in the CNS, by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), viral isolation in N2A cells and reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 100% (5/5) were positive for rabies in samples of the tongue and the heart, 80% (4/5) in the kidneys, 40% (2/5) in samples of the salivary glands and the lungs, and 20% (1/5) in the liver by RT-PCR test. All the nine bats that were negative for rabies in the CNS, by FAT, viral isolation and RT-PCR were negative for rabies in the salivary glands by RT-PCR test. Possible consequences for rabies epidemiology and pathogenesis are discussed in this work.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Vieira L.F.P., Pereira S.R.F.G., Galante A.C., Castilho J.G., Oliveira R.N., Brandão P.E. & Kotait I. 2011. Detection of rabies virus nucleoprotein-RNA in several organs outside the central nervous system in naturally-infected vampire bats. [Detecção de núcleoproteína-RNA do vírus rábico em diversos órgãos fora do sistema nervoso central de morcegos hematófagos infectados naturalmente.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 31(10):922-925. Setor de Virologia e Viroses, Laboratório de Sanidade Animal, Hospital Veterinário, Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque Califórnia, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-602, Brazil. E-mail: luizuenf@yahoo.com.br A raiva é uma doença neurológica, mas o vírus da raiva se dispersa para diversos órgãos fora do sistema nervoso central (SNC). Antígeno ou RNA do vírus da raiva já foram detectados em vários órgãos, tais como glândula salivar, pulmão, rim, coração e fígado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar a presença do vírus da raiva em órgãos não neuronais de morcegos hematófagos infectados naturalmente, e pesquisar a presença do vírus na glândula salivar de morcegos hematófagos sadios. Dos cinco morcegos positivos para a raiva no SNC pelas técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e isolamento viral em células N2A, 100% (5/5) foram positivos para a raiva nas amostras de língua e coração, 80% (4/5) no rim, 40% (2/5) nas amostras de glândula salivar e pulmão, e 20% (4/5) no fígado pela técnica de RT-PCR. Todos os nove morcegos negativos no SNC, pela imunofluorescência e isolamento viral, foram negativos na glândula salivar pela RT-PCR. Possíveis consequências para a epidemiologia e patogênese da raiva são discutidas.


#5 - Detection of Pneumocystis in lungs of bats from Brazil by PCR amplification, p.469-473

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Cavallini Sanches E.M., Pacheco S.M., Cericatto A.S., Melo R.M., Colodel E.M., Hummel J., Bianchi S.P., Spanamberg A., Santurio J.M. & Ferreiro L. 2009. Detection of Pneumocystis in lungs of bats from Brazil by PCR amplification. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(6):469-473. Setor de Micologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 90540-000, Brazil. E-mail: cavallini.sanches@ufrgs.br Pneumocystis has been isolated from a wide range of unrelated mammalian hosts, including humans, domestic and wild animals. It has been demonstrated that the genome of Pneumocystis of one host differs markedly from that of other hosts. Also, variation in the chromosome and DNA sequence of Pneumocystis within a single host species has been observed. Since information about the occurrence and nature of infections in wild animals is still limited, the objective of this work was to detect the presence of Pneumocystis sp. in lungs of bats from two states from Brazil by Nested-PCR amplification. The bats, captured in caves and in urban areas, were obtained from the Program of Rabies Control of two States in Brazil, Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul, located in the Mid-Western and Southern regions of the country, respectively. DNAs were extracted from 102 lung tissues and screened for Pneumocystis by nested PCR at the mtLSU rRNA gene and small subunit of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (mtSSU rRNA). Gene amplification was performed using the mtLSU rRNA, the primer set pAZ102H - pAZ102E and pAZ102X - pAZY, and the mtSSU rRNA primer set pAZ102 10FRI - pAZ102 10R-RI and pAZ102 13RI - pAZ102 14RI. The most frequent bats were Tadarida brasiliensis (25), Desmodus rotundus (20), and Nyctinomops laticaudatus (19). Pneumocystis was more prevalent in the species Nyctinomops laticaudatus (26.3% = 5/19), Tadarida brasiliensis (24% = 6/25), and Desmodus rotundus (20% = 4/20). Besides these species, Pneumocystis also was detected in lungs from Molossus molossus (1/11, 9.1%), Artibeus fimbriatus (1/1, 100%), Sturnira lilium (1/3, 33.3%), Myotis levis (2/3, 66.7%) and Diphylla ecaudata (1/2, 50%). PCR products which could indicate the presence of Pneumocystis (21.56%) were identified in DNA samples obtained from 8 out of 16 classified species from both states (5 bats were not identified). This is the first report of detection of Pneumocystis in bats from Brazil.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Cavallini Sanches E.M., Pacheco S.M., Cericatto A.S., Melo R.M., Colodel E.M., Hummel J., Bianchi S.P., Spanamberg A., Santurio J.M. & Ferreiro L. 2009. Detection of Pneumocystis in lungs of bats from Brazil by PCR amplification. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(6):469-473. Setor de Micologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9090, Porto Alegre, RS 90540-000, Brazil. E-mail: cavallini.sanches@ufrgs.br Pneumocystis has been isolated from a wide range of unrelated mammalian hosts, including humans, domestic and wild animals. It has been demonstrated that the genome of Pneumocystis of one host differs markedly from that of other hosts. Also, variation in the chromosome and DNA sequence of Pneumocystis within a single host species has been observed. Since information about the occurrence and nature of infections in wild animals is still limited, the objective of this work was to detect the presence of Pneumocystis sp. in lungs of bats from two states from Brazil by Nested-PCR amplification. The bats, captured in caves and in urban areas, were obtained from the Program of Rabies Control of two States in Brazil, Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul, located in the Mid-Western and Southern regions of the country, respectively. DNAs were extracted from 102 lung tissues and screened for Pneumocystis by nested PCR at the mtLSU rRNA gene and small subunit of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (mtSSU rRNA). Gene amplification was performed using the mtLSU rRNA, the primer set pAZ102H - pAZ102E and pAZ102X - pAZY, and the mtSSU rRNA primer set pAZ102 10FRI - pAZ102 10R-RI and pAZ102 13RI - pAZ102 14RI. The most frequent bats were Tadarida brasiliensis (25), Desmodus rotundus (20), and Nyctinomops laticaudatus (19). Pneumocystis was more prevalent in the species Nyctinomops laticaudatus (26.3% = 5/19), Tadarida brasiliensis (24% = 6/25), and Desmodus rotundus (20% = 4/20). Besides these species, Pneumocystis also was detected in lungs from Molossus molossus (1/11, 9.1%), Artibeus fimbriatus (1/1, 100%), Sturnira lilium (1/3, 33.3%), Myotis levis (2/3, 66.7%) and Diphylla ecaudata (1/2, 50%). PCR products which could indicate the presence of Pneumocystis (21.56%) were identified in DNA samples obtained from 8 out of 16 classified species from both states (5 bats were not identified). This is the first report of detection of Pneumocystis in bats from Brazil.


#6 - Influência do sexo de indivíduos da mesma colônia no controle químico das populações do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (Phyllstomidae) no Estado de São Paulo

Abstract in English:

Gomes M., Uieda W. & Latorre M.R.D.O. 2006. [Influence of sex differences in the same colony for chemical control of vampire Desmodus rotundus (Phyllostomidae) populations in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.] Influência do sexo de indivíduos da mesma colônia no controle químico das populações do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (Phyllstomidae) no Estado de São Paulo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 26(1):38-43. Coordenadoria de Defesa Agropecuária/SP, Regional Mogi das Cruzes, Av. Cândido X.A.Sousa 35, Mogi das Cruzes, SP 08780-210, Brazil. E-mail: murilong@usp.br The aim of this study was to verify the fidelity to the diurnal roosts by the genders of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, and to analyse the Warfarin gel 2% effectiveness for reduction of the size of vampire bat colonies, when individuals of different sexes were treated. In 1999 and 2000, 626 vampire bats were mist netted while leaving at night 12 diurnal roosts in the state of São Paulo. They were marked, and 10% of the roost population received the Warfarin gel 2% treatment. In Test I only males were treated, in Test II only females were treated, and in Test III 5% of males and females were treated. After 5 and 10 days, the dead and the survivors were counted. Females were more loyal to the roosts (p<0,01) and better wide spreader of the Warfarin gel (p<0,01).

Abstract in Portuguese:

Gomes M., Uieda W. & Latorre M.R.D.O. 2006. [Influence of sex differences in the same colony for chemical control of vampire Desmodus rotundus (Phyllostomidae) populations in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.] Influência do sexo de indivíduos da mesma colônia no controle químico das populações do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (Phyllstomidae) no Estado de São Paulo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 26(1):38-43. Coordenadoria de Defesa Agropecuária/SP, Regional Mogi das Cruzes, Av. Cândido X.A.Sousa 35, Mogi das Cruzes, SP 08780-210, Brazil. E-mail: murilong@usp.br The aim of this study was to verify the fidelity to the diurnal roosts by the genders of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, and to analyse the Warfarin gel 2% effectiveness for reduction of the size of vampire bat colonies, when individuals of different sexes were treated. In 1999 and 2000, 626 vampire bats were mist netted while leaving at night 12 diurnal roosts in the state of São Paulo. They were marked, and 10% of the roost population received the Warfarin gel 2% treatment. In Test I only males were treated, in Test II only females were treated, and in Test III 5% of males and females were treated. After 5 and 10 days, the dead and the survivors were counted. Females were more loyal to the roosts (p<0,01) and better wide spreader of the Warfarin gel (p<0,01).


#7 - Vampiricides for topical use on domestic aminals and vampire bats

Abstract in English:

This study was undertaken as an attempt to adapt the basic formulation of Vampirinip II, a vampiricide developed at the "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Pecuárias de México" to fiel d conditions in Brazil. The original product w.as presented as a paste to be use d both for topical application on vampire bats and for use on wounds caused by these bats in domestic animals. Two modified pastes were developed: MH-I for use on bites caused by vampire bats, and MH-II, to be used directly on the back of vampire bats, Desmodus rotundus. The Technical Warfarin used was 3(α-acetonyl-benzyl)-4-hydroxycumarin, and the concentration was maintained at 1% in MH-II, but increased to 2% in MH-I. Paraffin was added to both pastes: 5% for MH-I and 2,5% for MH-II. One topical application of the MH-I paste reduced by 80% the number of new bites, while the MH-II paste caused a reduction in the vampire bat population of approximately 95%. The advantages of both vampiricides are discussed. The production and commercialization of the MH-II paste are recommended and its use by farrners is encouraged as a means of reducing governamental expenditures in rabies contrai programs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Foram procedidas modificações na formulação básica original do produto Vampirinip II, à base de Warfarina Técnica 3(α -acetonil- benzil)-4-hidroxicumarina, desenvolvido no "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Pecuárias de México". O produto era apresentado em uma única formulação sob. A forma de pasta, tanto para tratamento tópico em morcegos hematófagos, como para uso em ferimentos por eles provocados nos animais. A reformulação do Vampirinip II foi baseada em observações a nível de campo, incialmente, tranformando-o em duas pastas vampiricidas de uso tópico: em ferimentos nos animais domésticos (MH-I) e outra em morcegos hematófagos (MH-II). Na pasta MH-I foi alterada a concentração referente à Warfarina, possuindo 2% ao invés de 1% como na MH-II, além da inclusão de parafina, com 5% na MH-I e 2,5% na MH-II. A pasta para animais domésticos quando usada em um único tratamento tópico reduziu em cerca de 80% o número de morde- duras frescas e o uso em morcegos hematófagos Desmodus rotundus alcançou uma redução em torno de 95% nas suas populações. Discute-se as vantagens das duas pastas e propõe-se a sua industrialização e comercialização, sendo a pasta para uso em morcegos hematófagos restrita ao uso oficial. Deste modo, pretende-se minimizar os custos operacionais do governo nas campanhas de Controle da Raiva dos Herbívoros.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV