Contents

Alterações morfométricas no plexo mioentérico do cólon menor equino distendido experimentalmente, p.557-562

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Mendes H.M.F., Escobar A., Vasconcelos A.C., Zucoloto S., Alves G.E.S. & Faleiros R.R. 2009. [Morphometrical alterations in myoenteric plexus of experimentally distended equine small colon.] Alterações morfométricas no plexo mioentérico do cólon menor equino distendido experimentalmente. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):557-562. Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 30161-970, Brazil. E-mail: faleiros@ufmg.br The equine small colon is frequently affected by obstruction, and intestinal motility dysfunction is a common complication after its surgical treatment. This fact may be related to myoenteric plexus lesion caused by distention; however, little is known about the pathophysiology of this condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological alterations in the myoenteric inervation of segments of small colon of horses subjected to intraluminal distension with reduction of the microvascular perfusion (partial ischemia) of the intestinal wall. Nine horses were used to promote distension of on segment of small colon for 4 hours. Samples of intestinal wall were collected before and at the end of the distension, after 1.5 and 12 hours of reperfusion in the experimental segment and at the end of the procedure in a different distant segment. Samples were processed and histological sections were stained with cresyl violet for the morphometric studies. An image analyzer software was used to measure perimeter, diameter, and area of the neuronal body, nucleus and nucleolus of the neurons and the areas of the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Significant reductions (P<0.05) in the areas of the neuronal body and cytoplasm were detected at the end of intestinal distension, returning to the basal values during the reperfusion. In conclusion, intraluminal distension promoted changes in the morphology of the neurons of myoenteric plexus. These morphological modifications may be associated to the motility dysfunction frequently observed in clinical cases.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Mendes H.M.F., Escobar A., Vasconcelos A.C., Zucoloto S., Alves G.E.S. & Faleiros R.R. 2009. [Morphometrical alterations in myoenteric plexus of experimentally distended equine small colon.] Alterações morfométricas no plexo mioentérico do cólon menor equino distendido experimentalmente. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):557-562. Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG 30161-970, Brazil. E-mail: faleiros@ufmg.br The equine small colon is frequently affected by obstruction, and intestinal motility dysfunction is a common complication after its surgical treatment. This fact may be related to myoenteric plexus lesion caused by distention; however, little is known about the pathophysiology of this condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological alterations in the myoenteric inervation of segments of small colon of horses subjected to intraluminal distension with reduction of the microvascular perfusion (partial ischemia) of the intestinal wall. Nine horses were used to promote distension of on segment of small colon for 4 hours. Samples of intestinal wall were collected before and at the end of the distension, after 1.5 and 12 hours of reperfusion in the experimental segment and at the end of the procedure in a different distant segment. Samples were processed and histological sections were stained with cresyl violet for the morphometric studies. An image analyzer software was used to measure perimeter, diameter, and area of the neuronal body, nucleus and nucleolus of the neurons and the areas of the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Significant reductions (P<0.05) in the areas of the neuronal body and cytoplasm were detected at the end of intestinal distension, returning to the basal values during the reperfusion. In conclusion, intraluminal distension promoted changes in the morphology of the neurons of myoenteric plexus. These morphological modifications may be associated to the motility dysfunction frequently observed in clinical cases.


Animal infections by vaccinia-like virus in the state of Rio de Janeiro: An expanding disease, p.509-514

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Schatzmayr H.G., Simonetti B.R., Abreu D.C., Simonetti J.P., Simonetti S.R., Costa R.V.V., Gonçalves M.C.R., Gerhardt M.., Silva M.E.V., Farias-Filho J.C. & Barth O.M. 2009. Animal infections by vaccinia-like virus in the state of Rio de Janeiro: An expanding disease. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):509-514. Laboratório de Morfologia e Morfogênese Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil. E-mail: hermann@ioc.fiocruz.br In the present study we investigated the presence of infections by vaccinia-like viruses in dairy cattle from 12 counties in the state of Rio de Janeiro in the last 9 years. Clinical specimens were collected from adult animals with vesicular/pustular lesions mainly in the udder and teats, and from calves with lesions around the nose and mouth. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was applied to search for antibodies to Orthopoxvirus; the vesicular/pustular fluids and scabs were examined by PCR, electron microscopy (EM) and by inoculation in VERO cells for virus isolation. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in most cases. The PCR test indicated a high nucleotide homology among the isolates and the vaccinia viruses (VACV) used as controls. By EM, typical orthopoxvirus particles were observed in some specimens. The agents isolated in tissue culture were confirmed as vaccinia-like viruses by EM and PCR. The HA gene of the vaccinia-like Cantagalo/IOC virus isolated in our laboratory was sequenced and compared with other vaccinia-like isolates, showing high homology with the original Cantagalo strain, both strains isolated in 1999 from dairy cattle. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in one wild rodent (genus Akodon sp.) collected in the northwestern region of the state, indicating the circulation of poxvirus in this area. Nonetheless, PCR applied to tissue samples collected from the wild rodents were negative. Vesicular/pustular lesions in people in close contact with animals have been also recorded. Thus, the vaccinia-like virus infections in cattle and humans in the state seem to be an expanding condition, resulting in economic losses to dairy herds and leading to transient incapacitating human disease. Therefore, a possible immunization of the dairy cattle in the state should be carefully evaluated.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Schatzmayr H.G., Simonetti B.R., Abreu D.C., Simonetti J.P., Simonetti S.R., Costa R.V.V., Gonçalves M.C.R., Gerhardt M.., Silva M.E.V., Farias-Filho J.C. & Barth O.M. 2009. Animal infections by vaccinia-like virus in the state of Rio de Janeiro: An expanding disease. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):509-514. Laboratório de Morfologia e Morfogênese Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21040-900, Brazil. E-mail: hermann@ioc.fiocruz.br In the present study we investigated the presence of infections by vaccinia-like viruses in dairy cattle from 12 counties in the state of Rio de Janeiro in the last 9 years. Clinical specimens were collected from adult animals with vesicular/pustular lesions mainly in the udder and teats, and from calves with lesions around the nose and mouth. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was applied to search for antibodies to Orthopoxvirus; the vesicular/pustular fluids and scabs were examined by PCR, electron microscopy (EM) and by inoculation in VERO cells for virus isolation. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in most cases. The PCR test indicated a high nucleotide homology among the isolates and the vaccinia viruses (VACV) used as controls. By EM, typical orthopoxvirus particles were observed in some specimens. The agents isolated in tissue culture were confirmed as vaccinia-like viruses by EM and PCR. The HA gene of the vaccinia-like Cantagalo/IOC virus isolated in our laboratory was sequenced and compared with other vaccinia-like isolates, showing high homology with the original Cantagalo strain, both strains isolated in 1999 from dairy cattle. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in one wild rodent (genus Akodon sp.) collected in the northwestern region of the state, indicating the circulation of poxvirus in this area. Nonetheless, PCR applied to tissue samples collected from the wild rodents were negative. Vesicular/pustular lesions in people in close contact with animals have been also recorded. Thus, the vaccinia-like virus infections in cattle and humans in the state seem to be an expanding condition, resulting in economic losses to dairy herds and leading to transient incapacitating human disease. Therefore, a possible immunization of the dairy cattle in the state should be carefully evaluated.


Aspectos clínicos-hematológicos e lesões vesicais nas formas crônicas de intoxicação espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos, p.515-525

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Gabriel A.L., Kommers G.D., Masuda E.K, Fighera R.A., Piazer J.V.M., Barros C.S.L., Martins T.B. & Rosa F.B. 2009. [Clinical and hematological aspects and urinary bladder lesions in chronic spontaneous poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle.] Aspectos clínicos-hematológicos e lesões vesicais nas formas crônicas de intoxicação espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):515-525. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: glaukommers@yahoo.com Spontaneous cases of chronic poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle were studied. The clinical forms of the disease were squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs) of the upper digestive tract (UDT) and bovine enzootic hematuria (BEH). The cases were from the midland Region of the Midwest of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and were submitted to the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Clinical signs and blood work were evaluated at terminal phase of disease. Cattle with UDT SCCs had progressive weigth loss, ruminal atony, cough, dysphagia, bloating, and regurgitation. In cattle with BEH, hematuria was observed in all cases, followed by progressive weight loss. Non-regenerative anemia was detected in 33.33% of the cattle with UDT SCCs form and in 66.66% of the cattle with BEH form. Changes in white blood count occurred in some cases but drop in lymphocyte numbers was uncommon in both forms of disease. For the morphological study, urinary bladders from 46 cattle with UDT SCCs and 11 cattle with BEH were analyzed. Grossly, 16/46 bladders from the UDT SCCs form had gross lesions (red or pale vesical nodules, hemorrhages, and papilomas; red urine was detected at necropsy of only three cases). In BEH form, the bladder had nodules, large neoplastic masses, red urine, papilomas, and hemorrhages. Pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis were seen in a few cases. Microscopically, in the UDT SCCs form, 44/46 (95.65%) bladders had 22 different types of morphological changes, characterized by neoplastic lesions (5/22) and non-neoplastic lesions (17/22); the latter were subdivided in non-neoplastic epithelial changes (6/17), general changes of the lamina propria (6/17), and inflammatory changes (5/17). The bladder changes in BEH form were of 19 different types, characterized by neoplastic lesions (5/19) and non-neoplastic lesions (14/19), which were subdivided in non-neoplastic epitelial changes (9/14), general changes of the lamina propria (3/14), and inflammatory changes (2/14). In BEH, mesenchymal neoplasms were more observed than epithelial ones, and most of them were malignant. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to characterize the histogenesis of poorly differentiated neoplasms. In conclusion, the morphological study demonstrated that urinary bladder lesions identical to the those seen in cattle with BEH, are very often present in cattle with the UDT SCCs form.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Gabriel A.L., Kommers G.D., Masuda E.K, Fighera R.A., Piazer J.V.M., Barros C.S.L., Martins T.B. & Rosa F.B. 2009. [Clinical and hematological aspects and urinary bladder lesions in chronic spontaneous poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle.] Aspectos clínicos-hematológicos e lesões vesicais nas formas crônicas de intoxicação espontânea por Pteridium aquilinum em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):515-525. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900, Brazil. E-mail: glaukommers@yahoo.com Spontaneous cases of chronic poisoning by Pteridium aquilinum in cattle were studied. The clinical forms of the disease were squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs) of the upper digestive tract (UDT) and bovine enzootic hematuria (BEH). The cases were from the midland Region of the Midwest of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and were submitted to the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Clinical signs and blood work were evaluated at terminal phase of disease. Cattle with UDT SCCs had progressive weigth loss, ruminal atony, cough, dysphagia, bloating, and regurgitation. In cattle with BEH, hematuria was observed in all cases, followed by progressive weight loss. Non-regenerative anemia was detected in 33.33% of the cattle with UDT SCCs form and in 66.66% of the cattle with BEH form. Changes in white blood count occurred in some cases but drop in lymphocyte numbers was uncommon in both forms of disease. For the morphological study, urinary bladders from 46 cattle with UDT SCCs and 11 cattle with BEH were analyzed. Grossly, 16/46 bladders from the UDT SCCs form had gross lesions (red or pale vesical nodules, hemorrhages, and papilomas; red urine was detected at necropsy of only three cases). In BEH form, the bladder had nodules, large neoplastic masses, red urine, papilomas, and hemorrhages. Pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis were seen in a few cases. Microscopically, in the UDT SCCs form, 44/46 (95.65%) bladders had 22 different types of morphological changes, characterized by neoplastic lesions (5/22) and non-neoplastic lesions (17/22); the latter were subdivided in non-neoplastic epithelial changes (6/17), general changes of the lamina propria (6/17), and inflammatory changes (5/17). The bladder changes in BEH form were of 19 different types, characterized by neoplastic lesions (5/19) and non-neoplastic lesions (14/19), which were subdivided in non-neoplastic epitelial changes (9/14), general changes of the lamina propria (3/14), and inflammatory changes (2/14). In BEH, mesenchymal neoplasms were more observed than epithelial ones, and most of them were malignant. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to characterize the histogenesis of poorly differentiated neoplasms. In conclusion, the morphological study demonstrated that urinary bladder lesions identical to the those seen in cattle with BEH, are very often present in cattle with the UDT SCCs form.


Doenças do sistema nervoso central de equídeos no semi-árido, p.589-597

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Pimentel L.A., Oliveira D.M., Galiza G.J.N., Rego R.O., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2009. [Diseases of the central nervous system in equidae in the Brazilian semiarid.] Doenças do sistema nervoso central de equídeos no semi-árido. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):589-597. Hospital Veterinário, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in equidae are important in these species, and their knowledge in the different Brazilian regions is necessary to determine efficient control and preventive measures. This paper reports epidemiologic aspects, clinical signs and pathology of diseases of the CNS in equidae diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory at the Federal University of Campina Grande in the city of Patos, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, during 2002-2008. During the period, 159 cases or outbreaks of those diseases were studied, 49 (30.8%) affecting the CNS. Hepatic encephalopathy caused by Crotalaria retusa poisoning, with 14 cases (28.5%), was the main disease observed. Tetanus was diagnosed in 13 (26.5%) cases and rabies in 11 (22.4%). In seven (14.2%) cases the death or euthanasia was due to traumatic lesions of the CNS. Also were diagnosed 1 case of leucoencephalomalacia, 1 case of encephalitis by equine herpesvirus-1, 1 case of intracarotid artery injection, 1 outbreak of Eastern equine encephalitis, 1 of Turbina cordata poisoning, and 1 of a tremogenic disease of unknown cause. In 5 cases the diagnosis was inconclusive. This paper indicates the importance of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, in the different Brazilian regions, for the knowledge of livestock diseases.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Pimentel L.A., Oliveira D.M., Galiza G.J.N., Rego R.O., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2009. [Diseases of the central nervous system in equidae in the Brazilian semiarid.] Doenças do sistema nervoso central de equídeos no semi-árido. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):589-597. Hospital Veterinário, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) in equidae are important in these species, and their knowledge in the different Brazilian regions is necessary to determine efficient control and preventive measures. This paper reports epidemiologic aspects, clinical signs and pathology of diseases of the CNS in equidae diagnosed by the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory at the Federal University of Campina Grande in the city of Patos, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, during 2002-2008. During the period, 159 cases or outbreaks of those diseases were studied, 49 (30.8%) affecting the CNS. Hepatic encephalopathy caused by Crotalaria retusa poisoning, with 14 cases (28.5%), was the main disease observed. Tetanus was diagnosed in 13 (26.5%) cases and rabies in 11 (22.4%). In seven (14.2%) cases the death or euthanasia was due to traumatic lesions of the CNS. Also were diagnosed 1 case of leucoencephalomalacia, 1 case of encephalitis by equine herpesvirus-1, 1 case of intracarotid artery injection, 1 outbreak of Eastern equine encephalitis, 1 of Turbina cordata poisoning, and 1 of a tremogenic disease of unknown cause. In 5 cases the diagnosis was inconclusive. This paper indicates the importance of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, in the different Brazilian regions, for the knowledge of livestock diseases.


Doenças parasitárias em ruminantes no semi-árido brasileiro, p.563-568

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Costa V.M.M., Simões S.V.D. & Riet-Correa F. 2009. [Parasitic diseases in ruminants in the Brazilian semiarid.] Doenças parasitárias em ruminantes no semi-árido brasileiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):563-568. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-970 Patos, PB, Brazil. Email: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Clinical cases and diagnostic specimens from ruminants received by the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Campina Grande in Patos, Paraíba, Brazil, from January 2000 to August 2007, were reviewed to evaluate some epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases of ruminants in the semiarid region of Paraíba and neighboring states. The region has an annual rainfall of about 800mm, with irregular rains concentrated in a 3 to 4-month-period, and an average annual temperature of 26°C. During those years, 163 (5.31%) out of 3,064 ruminants were affected by some parasitic disease. The most important parasitosis in goats and sheep was gastrointestinal helminthiasis, mainly hemonchosis; goats were more affected (6.24% of cases in this species) than sheep (4.7% of cases). The higher frequency of the disease in goats may be associated with higher susceptibility or due to treatment mistakes, i.e. use of the same dose for both species, which for most anti-antihelmintics is insufficient for goats. Cattle have a low rate of gastrointestinal helminthiasis (1 out of 1,113 cases). This low frequency is probably due to the farming system in the semiarid, with low stocking rate, up to one adult bovine for every 13-16 ha, and permanence of calves (susceptible) with their mothers (resistant) for nearly one year before weaning. The occurrence of eimeriosis in goats and sheep was observed in 0.76% of the cases, involving only young animals. The main cattle disease was tick fever with 14 outbreaks. Outbreaks of tick fever occur, mainly at the end of the raining season in areas of the semiarid which are marginal for tick, like plateaus and mountains of the Borborema region, irrigated areas, and areas of the basins of two rivers of the region. In the drier areas of the semiarid Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus do not survive during the dry period, but tick fever can occur when cattle with ticks are introduced at the onset of the raining season.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Costa V.M.M., Simões S.V.D. & Riet-Correa F. 2009. [Parasitic diseases in ruminants in the Brazilian semiarid.] Doenças parasitárias em ruminantes no semi-árido brasileiro. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):563-568. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-970 Patos, PB, Brazil. Email: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Clinical cases and diagnostic specimens from ruminants received by the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Campina Grande in Patos, Paraíba, Brazil, from January 2000 to August 2007, were reviewed to evaluate some epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases of ruminants in the semiarid region of Paraíba and neighboring states. The region has an annual rainfall of about 800mm, with irregular rains concentrated in a 3 to 4-month-period, and an average annual temperature of 26°C. During those years, 163 (5.31%) out of 3,064 ruminants were affected by some parasitic disease. The most important parasitosis in goats and sheep was gastrointestinal helminthiasis, mainly hemonchosis; goats were more affected (6.24% of cases in this species) than sheep (4.7% of cases). The higher frequency of the disease in goats may be associated with higher susceptibility or due to treatment mistakes, i.e. use of the same dose for both species, which for most anti-antihelmintics is insufficient for goats. Cattle have a low rate of gastrointestinal helminthiasis (1 out of 1,113 cases). This low frequency is probably due to the farming system in the semiarid, with low stocking rate, up to one adult bovine for every 13-16 ha, and permanence of calves (susceptible) with their mothers (resistant) for nearly one year before weaning. The occurrence of eimeriosis in goats and sheep was observed in 0.76% of the cases, involving only young animals. The main cattle disease was tick fever with 14 outbreaks. Outbreaks of tick fever occur, mainly at the end of the raining season in areas of the semiarid which are marginal for tick, like plateaus and mountains of the Borborema region, irrigated areas, and areas of the basins of two rivers of the region. In the drier areas of the semiarid Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus do not survive during the dry period, but tick fever can occur when cattle with ticks are introduced at the onset of the raining season.


Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) inactivated vaccine, p.545-551

Abstract in English:

Abstract.- Silva A.D., Esteves P.A., Dezen D., Oliveira A.P., Spilki F.R., Campos F.S., Franco A.C. & Roehe P.M. 2009. Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) inactivated vaccine. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):545-551. Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor, Fepagro Saúde Animal, Estrada do Conde 6000, Cx. Postal 47, Eldorado do Sul, RS 92990-000, Brazil. E-mail: proehe@gmail.com Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is recognized as a major cause of economic losses in cattle. Vaccination has been widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections. We have previously reported the development of a differential BoHV-1 vaccine, based on a recombinant glycoprotein E (gE)-deleted virus (265gE-). In present paper the efficacy of such recombinant was evaluated as an inactivated vaccine. Five BoHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and boostered 30 days later with an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine containing an antigenic mass equivalent to 107.0 fifty per cent cell culture infectious doses (CCID50) of 265gE-. Three calves were kept as non vaccinated controls. On day 60 post vaccination both vaccinated and controls were challenged with the virulent parental strain. No clinical signs or adverse effects were seen after or during vaccination. After challenge, 2/5 vaccinated calves showed mild clinical signs of infection, whereas all non vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Serological responses were detected in all vaccinated animals after the second dose of vaccine, but not on control calves. Following corticosteroid administration in attempting to induce reactivation of the latent infection, no clinical signs were observed in vaccinated calves, whereas non vaccinated controls showed clinical signs of respiratory disease. In view of its immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge with a virulent BoHV-1, the oil adjuvanted preparation with the inactivated 265gE- recombinant was shown to be suitable for use as a vaccine.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Abstract.- Silva A.D., Esteves P.A., Dezen D., Oliveira A.P., Spilki F.R., Campos F.S., Franco A.C. & Roehe P.M. 2009. Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) inactivated vaccine. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):545-551. Instituto de Pesquisas Veterinárias Desidério Finamor, Fepagro Saúde Animal, Estrada do Conde 6000, Cx. Postal 47, Eldorado do Sul, RS 92990-000, Brazil. E-mail: proehe@gmail.com Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is recognized as a major cause of economic losses in cattle. Vaccination has been widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections. We have previously reported the development of a differential BoHV-1 vaccine, based on a recombinant glycoprotein E (gE)-deleted virus (265gE-). In present paper the efficacy of such recombinant was evaluated as an inactivated vaccine. Five BoHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and boostered 30 days later with an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine containing an antigenic mass equivalent to 107.0 fifty per cent cell culture infectious doses (CCID50) of 265gE-. Three calves were kept as non vaccinated controls. On day 60 post vaccination both vaccinated and controls were challenged with the virulent parental strain. No clinical signs or adverse effects were seen after or during vaccination. After challenge, 2/5 vaccinated calves showed mild clinical signs of infection, whereas all non vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Serological responses were detected in all vaccinated animals after the second dose of vaccine, but not on control calves. Following corticosteroid administration in attempting to induce reactivation of the latent infection, no clinical signs were observed in vaccinated calves, whereas non vaccinated controls showed clinical signs of respiratory disease. In view of its immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge with a virulent BoHV-1, the oil adjuvanted preparation with the inactivated 265gE- recombinant was shown to be suitable for use as a vaccine.


Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry, p.552-556

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Buim M.R., Mettifogo E., Timenetsky J., Kleven S. & Ferreira A.J.P. 2009. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):552-556. Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil. E-mail: ajpferr@usp.br Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses in Brazilian and world-wide poultry industry. This investigation regarding the main species of mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS), responsible for the above mentioned conditions, was carried out through PCR Multiplex analysis. One thousand and forty-six (1,046) samples of tracheal swabs and piped embryos were collected from 33 farms with laying hens, breeders, broilers or hatchery, located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Pernambuco, where respiratory problems or drops in egg production had occurred. The MG and MS prevalence on the farms was 72.7%. These results indicated (1) high dissemination of mycoplasmas in the evaluated farms, with predominance of MS, either as single infectious agent or associated with other mycoplasmas in 20 farms (60.6%), and (2) an increase of MS and decrease of MG infection in Brazilian commercial poultry.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Buim M.R., Mettifogo E., Timenetsky J., Kleven S. & Ferreira A.J.P. 2009. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):552-556. Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-900, Brazil. E-mail: ajpferr@usp.br Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses in Brazilian and world-wide poultry industry. This investigation regarding the main species of mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS), responsible for the above mentioned conditions, was carried out through PCR Multiplex analysis. One thousand and forty-six (1,046) samples of tracheal swabs and piped embryos were collected from 33 farms with laying hens, breeders, broilers or hatchery, located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Pernambuco, where respiratory problems or drops in egg production had occurred. The MG and MS prevalence on the farms was 72.7%. These results indicated (1) high dissemination of mycoplasmas in the evaluated farms, with predominance of MS, either as single infectious agent or associated with other mycoplasmas in 20 farms (60.6%), and (2) an increase of MS and decrease of MG infection in Brazilian commercial poultry.


Intoxicação por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos na Ilha do Marajó, Pará, p.583-588

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira C.A., Barbosa J.D., Duarte M.D., Cerqueira V.D., Riet-Correa F. & Riet-Correa G. 2009. [Poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats in Island of Marajó, Pará.] Intoxicação por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos na Ilha do Marajó, Pará. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):583-588. Central de Diagnóstico Veterinário, Campus de Castanhal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Maximino Porpino da Silva 1000, Pirapora, Castanhal, PA 68743-080, Brazil. E-mail: griet@ufpa.br Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa is a swainsonine-containing plant causing a glycoprotein storage diseases in ruminants, mainly in goats in northeastern Brazil. Seven farms were visited on the Marajo Island, state of Pará, northern Brazil, six in the municipality of Cachoeira do Arari and one in the municipality of Soure. In all farms native pastures had shortage of forage and were largely invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa. On the three farms goats presented difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, lateral gait, intention tremors, spastic paresis or weakness, abnormal postural reactions, nystagmus, loss of equilibrium and falling to the side or backward. On two farms the prevalence was of 32% (23/71) and 100% (32/32). On another farm one goat out of 19 had severe clinical signs, but the others of the flock were not examined clinically. Cattle, sheep and buffaloes were not affected. Six goats were euthanized and necropsied. No gross lesions were observed. Upon histological examination the main lesion was the vacuolization of the perikaryon of neurons and cytoplasm of epithelial cells of thyroid, liver, kidney, pancreas and macrophages of different organs. In the central nervous system the vacuolization of the perikaria was more sever in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in nuclei of the brain stem, mainly the cerebellar nuclei. Wallerian degeneration of axons and gliosis was also observed. The high frequency of the disease on the three farms suggests that poisoning by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is very important for goats on Marajó Island where there are large amounts of the plant in the pastures.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira C.A., Barbosa J.D., Duarte M.D., Cerqueira V.D., Riet-Correa F. & Riet-Correa G. 2009. [Poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats in Island of Marajó, Pará.] Intoxicação por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos na Ilha do Marajó, Pará. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):583-588. Central de Diagnóstico Veterinário, Campus de Castanhal, Universidade Federal do Pará, Rua Maximino Porpino da Silva 1000, Pirapora, Castanhal, PA 68743-080, Brazil. E-mail: griet@ufpa.br Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa is a swainsonine-containing plant causing a glycoprotein storage diseases in ruminants, mainly in goats in northeastern Brazil. Seven farms were visited on the Marajo Island, state of Pará, northern Brazil, six in the municipality of Cachoeira do Arari and one in the municipality of Soure. In all farms native pastures had shortage of forage and were largely invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa. On the three farms goats presented difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, lateral gait, intention tremors, spastic paresis or weakness, abnormal postural reactions, nystagmus, loss of equilibrium and falling to the side or backward. On two farms the prevalence was of 32% (23/71) and 100% (32/32). On another farm one goat out of 19 had severe clinical signs, but the others of the flock were not examined clinically. Cattle, sheep and buffaloes were not affected. Six goats were euthanized and necropsied. No gross lesions were observed. Upon histological examination the main lesion was the vacuolization of the perikaryon of neurons and cytoplasm of epithelial cells of thyroid, liver, kidney, pancreas and macrophages of different organs. In the central nervous system the vacuolization of the perikaria was more sever in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in nuclei of the brain stem, mainly the cerebellar nuclei. Wallerian degeneration of axons and gliosis was also observed. The high frequency of the disease on the three farms suggests that poisoning by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is very important for goats on Marajó Island where there are large amounts of the plant in the pastures.


Morte súbita em bovinos causada pela ingestão de Pseudocalymma elegans (Bignoniaceae) no município de Rio Bonito, RJ, p.498-508

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Helayel M.A., França T.N., Seixas J.N., Nogueira V.A., Caldas S.A. & Peixoto P.V. 2009. [Sudden death in cattle caused by ingestion of Pseudocalymma elegans (Bignoniaceae) in the county of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro.] Morte súbita em bovinos causada pela ingestão de Pseudocalymma elegans (Bignoniaceae) no município de Rio Bonito, RJ. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):498-508. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: michel_abdallavet@yahoo.com.br Natural poisoning by Pseudocalymma elegans, a plant that causes “sudden death” and only occurs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, is described in a cow. This condition was experimentally reproduced in three calves and three rabbits with the plant collected in the area where the deaths had occurred. Postmortem and histopathological examinations of the natural case in the cow did not reveal significant alterations. Oral administration of 1g/kg of the sprouts of P. elegans caused death of the calf 5 hours and 30 minutes after beginning of the administration. The dose of 0.5 g/kg caused death of another calf with onset of symptoms after 3 hours and 24 minutes and a course of 73 hours and 12 minutes. Animals that ingest borderline doses may show a longer course with a characteristic clinical picture of heart impairment. The dose of 0.25g/kg did not cause death, but only clinical signs. Heart palpitation and arrhythmia, increase of breathing frequency, reluctance in moving, positive venous pulse, ingurgitated jugular veins, falling down and peddling movements shortly before death, were observed. At postmortem examination the lesions were those of acute heart insufficiency, and histopathological examination revealed the typical kidney lesion (hydropic-vacular degeneration in the distal convoluted tubules) seen in poisoning by plants that cause “sudden death”. In the experimentally poisoned rabbits the clinical course was less than 1-2 minutes. In the kidney of two rabbits there was also the characteristic microscopic lesion. The presence of the plant in the county of Rio Bonito had not been known by the veterinarians. It is concluded that the plant could be more toxic than described before.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Helayel M.A., França T.N., Seixas J.N., Nogueira V.A., Caldas S.A. & Peixoto P.V. 2009. [Sudden death in cattle caused by ingestion of Pseudocalymma elegans (Bignoniaceae) in the county of Rio Bonito, Rio de Janeiro.] Morte súbita em bovinos causada pela ingestão de Pseudocalymma elegans (Bignoniaceae) no município de Rio Bonito, RJ. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):498-508. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: michel_abdallavet@yahoo.com.br Descreve-se a intoxicação natural por Pseudocalymma elegans em pelo menos um bovino em Rio Bonito, RJ e a reprodução experimental dessa intoxicação em três bovinos e em 3 coelhos com exemplares dessa planta colhida no local onde ocorreu a morte. Necropsia e histopatologia do bovino naturalmente intoxicado não revelaram alterações significativas. A administração, por via oral, de 1g/kg da brotação da planta causou a morte do bovino dentro de 5h e 30 minutos após o início da administração, já pela administração de 0,5 g/kg, a morte do animal ocorreu após 76 horas e 36 minutos. A dose de 0,25g/kg foi capaz de causar sintomas, mas não levou a morte. A sintomatologia caracterizou-se por arritmia cardíaca, taquicardia, aumento da freqüência respiratória, relutância em se mover, pulso venoso positivo, jugulares e grandes vasos ingurgitados, queda ao solo e movimentos de pedalagem, seguindo-se o óbito. À necropsia foram verificadas alterações compatíveis com às observadas na insuficiência cardíaca aguda, e o exame histopatológico revelou a lesão renal típica (degeneração hidrópica em túbulos contornados distais) de intoxicação por plantas que causam “morte súbita”. Nos coelhos, a evolução variou entre menos de um minuto a dois minutos. O exame histopatológico do rim de dois coelhos também revelou a lesão microscópica característica. Essa planta ainda não havia sido mapeada nessa área do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Conclui-se que a planta pode ser mais tóxica do que anteriormente descrito.


Patogênese das lesões associadas à intoxicação por Ramaria flavo-brunnescens em bovinos, p.533-544

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Trost M.E., Kommers G.D., Barros C.S.L & Schild A.L. 2009. [Patogenesis of lesions associated with poisoning by Ramaria flavo-brunnescens in cattle.] Patogênese das lesões associadas à intoxicação por Ramaria flavo-brunnescens em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):533-544. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: glaukommers@yahoo.com The pathogenesis of the lesions of Ramaria flavo-brunnescens poisoning in cattle was studied throughout the retrospective evaluation of selected tissues from nine spontaneous and four experimental cases of the disease. The pathogenesis of lesions observed in the tongue, esophagus, hoof, and tail was investigated analyzing microscopic lesions, histochemical and histochemical-ultrastructural changes. Histochemical techniques utilized were Masson’s Trichrome and Selective Oxidation of Keratin (SOK). The histochemical-ultrastructural study was acomplished throughout the Swift method under transmission electron microscopy. Hair shafts of the tip of the tail were analyzed under polarized light. Lesions of varying degrees of severity were observed. All changes observed in the keratinized structures studied, mostly in the hard keratin, showed defective keratinization. The morphologic study and the results obtained with SOK and Swift techniques showed that the defective keratinization results of low amounts of sulphur containing amino acids (cystine) in hard keratin structures. This is probably the main pathogenetic mechanism of the lesions observed in R. flavo brunnescens poisoning in cattle.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Trost M.E., Kommers G.D., Barros C.S.L & Schild A.L. 2009. [Patogenesis of lesions associated with poisoning by Ramaria flavo-brunnescens in cattle.] Patogênese das lesões associadas à intoxicação por Ramaria flavo-brunnescens em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):533-544. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: glaukommers@yahoo.com The pathogenesis of the lesions of Ramaria flavo-brunnescens poisoning in cattle was studied throughout the retrospective evaluation of selected tissues from nine spontaneous and four experimental cases of the disease. The pathogenesis of lesions observed in the tongue, esophagus, hoof, and tail was investigated analyzing microscopic lesions, histochemical and histochemical-ultrastructural changes. Histochemical techniques utilized were Masson’s Trichrome and Selective Oxidation of Keratin (SOK). The histochemical-ultrastructural study was acomplished throughout the Swift method under transmission electron microscopy. Hair shafts of the tip of the tail were analyzed under polarized light. Lesions of varying degrees of severity were observed. All changes observed in the keratinized structures studied, mostly in the hard keratin, showed defective keratinization. The morphologic study and the results obtained with SOK and Swift techniques showed that the defective keratinization results of low amounts of sulphur containing amino acids (cystine) in hard keratin structures. This is probably the main pathogenetic mechanism of the lesions observed in R. flavo brunnescens poisoning in cattle.


Polioencefalomalacia em bovinos: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e distribuição das lesões no encéfalo, p.487-497

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Sant’Ana F.J.F., Rissi D.R., Lucena R.B., Lemos R.A.A., Nogueira A.P.A. & Barros C.S.L. 2009. [Bovine polioencephalomalacia: epidemiology, clinical signs and distribution of lesions in the brain.] Polioencefalomalacia em bovinos: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e distribuição das lesões no encéfalo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):487-497. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br Thirty one cases of polioencephalomalacia (PEM) diagnosed from 1999-2008 in cattle from the Southern (13 cases) and Midwestern (18 cases) Brazil were studied. Morbidity (0.04%-6.66 %), mortality (0.04%-6.66 %), and lethality (50%-100%) rates were similar in both regions studied. There was no clear association between PEM cases and age, sex or seasonality. Cases occurred mainly in cattle raised at pasture; in the Southern the disease affected mainly young cattle (one-year old or less) while mainly older cattle (three-year-old or older) were affected in the Midwest. Clinical signs more frequently observed included blindness, incoordination, circling, opisthotonus, recumbence and peddling movements. Clinical course varied from 12 hours to 8 days (average three days and a half). In 11 cases no gross changes were observed in the brain. Main gross findings in the brain of remaining cases included congestion with swelling and flattening of gyri, softening and yellow discoloration of cerebral cortex, hemorrhagic foci in the brain stem, cerebellum and telencephalon, and cerebellar herniation. The main histopathological changes were in the cortex of occipital, parietal and frontal telencephalic lobes; however less prominent and less frequently found lesions occurred in the hippocampus, basal nuclei, thalamus, midbrain, and cerebellum. The type of microscopic cortical lesions was consistent in all cases and included segmentar laminar neuronal necrosis (red neurons), spongiosis, swollen of vascular endothelial nuclei, Alzheimer type II astrocytes and infiltration of gitter cells. In 20% of the cases there was mild lymphohistiocytic cellular infiltrate and in 13% of the cases there was mild infiltrate by neutrophils and eosinophils. Additionally, mild to moderate necro-hemorrhagic lesions were observed in 49% of the cases in the basal nuclei, in 39% of the cases in brain stem and in 26% of the cases in the thalamus. Brain lesions were consistently found in the cortical laminae of the occipital, parietal and frontal telencephalic lobes. In such locations, most frequently affected cortical layers both by neuronal necrosis and edema were external and internal granular layers. Both gyri and sulci were equally affected.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Sant’Ana F.J.F., Rissi D.R., Lucena R.B., Lemos R.A.A., Nogueira A.P.A. & Barros C.S.L. 2009. [Bovine polioencephalomalacia: epidemiology, clinical signs and distribution of lesions in the brain.] Polioencefalomalacia em bovinos: epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e distribuição das lesões no encéfalo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):487-497. Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. E-mail: claudioslbarros@uol.com.br RESUMO.- Trinta e um casos de polioencefalomalacia (PEM) diagnosticados de 1999-2008 em bovinos do Sul (13 casos) e Centro-Oeste (18 casos) brasileiros foram estudados. As taxas de morbidade (0,04%-6,66 %), mortalidade (0,04%-6,66 %) e letalidade (50%-100%) foram semelhantes em ambas as regiões estudadas. Não houve uma associação clara entre os casos de PEM e a idade, sexo dos bovinos e sazonalidade. Os casos ocorreram principalmente em bovinos criados de forma extensiva em pastagem. Na Região Sul a doença afetou principalmente bovinos jovens (um ano de idade ou menos), enquanto que principalmente bovinos mais velhos (3 anos de idade ou mais) foram afetados no Centro-Oeste. Os sinais clínicos mais frequentemente observados incluíram cegueira, incoordenação, andar em círculos, opistótono, decúbito e movimentos de pedalagem. A evolução do quadro clínico variou de 12 horas a 8 dias (media 3 dias e meio). Em 11 encéfalos não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas; as principais alterações macroscópicas nos outros casos incluíam congestão com tumefação e achatamento das circunvoluções, amolecimento e amarelamento do córtex telencefálico, focos de hemorragia no tronco encefálico, cerebelo e telencéfalo e herniação cerebelar. As principais alterações histológicas ocorreram no córtex dos lobos telencefálicos occipital, parietal e frontal; no entanto, lesões menos acentuadas e menos frequentemente observadas ocorreram no hipocampo, núcleos da base, tálamo, mesencéfalo e cerebelo. O tipo de lesão microscópica cortical era consistente em todos os casos e incluía necrose neuronal (neurônio vermelho) laminar segmentar, espongiose, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais, astrócitos Alzheimer tipo II e infiltração por células gitter. Em 20% dos casos havia um leve infiltrado celular linfo-histiocitário e em 13% dos casos havia leve infiltrado de neutrófilos e eosinófilos. Adicionalmente, lesões necro-hemorrágicas leves ou moderadas foram observadas em 49% dos casos nos núcleos da base, em 39% dos casos no tronco encefálico e em 26% dos casos no tálamo. Lesões telencefálicas foram consistentemente observadas nas lâminas dos córtices dos lobos occipital, parietal e frontal. Nessas regiões as camadas granular externa e interna foram as mais afetadas tanto por neurônios necróticos quanto por edema em todas as regiões avaliadas. Tanto os giros quanto os sulcos foram afetados igualmente.


Prevalência para tuberculose caprina no semi-árido paraibano, p.526-532

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Pignata W.A., Alves C.J., Azevedo S.S., Dantas A.F.M., Gomes A.A.B., Remígio F.R. & Lima F.S. 2009. [Prevalence for Caprine tuberculosis in paraibano semi-arid.] Prevalência para tuberculose caprina no semi-árido paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):526-532. Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Campus de Patos, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: walvet8@hotmail.com Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of world wide distribution caused by pathogenic mycobacteria that affect humans and several mammals species. In order to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in goats and to identify risk factors associated with infection, 1,866 goats of different breeds and ages from 84 herds in the microregion of Monteiro, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil, were tuberculinized by the Comparative Cervical Test (CCT). Interpretation of the CCT was checked by calculation of the difference obtained between skin measures correspondent to respective tuberculins, before and 72 hours after inoculation: negative, when bovine PPD is smaller than avian PPD or larger in up to 1.8mm; suspicious or inconclusive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than avian PPD between 1.9 and 2.4mm; positive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than or equal to avian PPD in 2.5mm. From goats submitted to CCT, 0.47% (9/1866) reacted positively (95% CI = 0.23%-0.94%). The prevalence of positive herds to caprine tuberculosis was 10.71% (95% CI = 5.02-19.37%). When submitted to necropsy and histopathologic examination, a positive goat at tuberculin test presented tuberculosis-like lesions. The presence of Acid-Alcohol Resistant Bacilli (BAAR) was also detected by direct bacterioscopy; in relation to herd size, herds with larger number of animals (>25) with high incidence of the disease, and presence of the infection was evidenced in properties that raised cattle in association with goats and did not carry out tuberculin tests in cattle.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Pignata W.A., Alves C.J., Azevedo S.S., Dantas A.F.M., Gomes A.A.B., Remígio F.R. & Lima F.S. 2009. [Prevalence for Caprine tuberculosis in paraibano semi-arid.] Prevalência para tuberculose caprina no semi-árido paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):526-532. Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, Campus de Patos, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, PB 58700-000, Brazil. E-mail: walvet8@hotmail.com Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of world wide distribution caused by pathogenic mycobacteria that affect humans and several mammals species. In order to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in goats and to identify risk factors associated with infection, 1,866 goats of different breeds and ages from 84 herds in the microregion of Monteiro, State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil, were tuberculinized by the Comparative Cervical Test (CCT). Interpretation of the CCT was checked by calculation of the difference obtained between skin measures correspondent to respective tuberculins, before and 72 hours after inoculation: negative, when bovine PPD is smaller than avian PPD or larger in up to 1.8mm; suspicious or inconclusive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than avian PPD between 1.9 and 2.4mm; positive, reaction to bovine PPD larger than or equal to avian PPD in 2.5mm. From goats submitted to CCT, 0.47% (9/1866) reacted positively (95% CI = 0.23%-0.94%). The prevalence of positive herds to caprine tuberculosis was 10.71% (95% CI = 5.02-19.37%). When submitted to necropsy and histopathologic examination, a positive goat at tuberculin test presented tuberculosis-like lesions. The presence of Acid-Alcohol Resistant Bacilli (BAAR) was also detected by direct bacterioscopy; in relation to herd size, herds with larger number of animals (>25) with high incidence of the disease, and presence of the infection was evidenced in properties that raised cattle in association with goats and did not carry out tuberculin tests in cattle.


Sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas do leite de vacas com mastite subclínica, p.569-574

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Medeiros E.S., Mota R.A., Santos M.V., Freitas M.F.L. Pinheiro Jr J.W. & Teles J.A. A. 2009. [In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity to Staphylococcus spp. isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.] Sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas do leite de vacas com mastite subclínica. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):569-574. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 51171-900, Brazil. E-mail: rinaldo.mota@hotmail.com The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial sensibility of 291 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., taken from the mammary glands of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in the regions of Metropolitan Recife (A), Agreste (B) and Zona da Mata (C) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 291 isolates, 170 (58.4%) were identified as negative coagulase Staphylococcus (SCN), 84 (28.9%) as Staphylococcus aureus, and 37 (12.7%) as positive coagulase Staphylococcus (SCP). To study sensitivity to antimicrobials, the diffusion in disks method was used with 16 antimicrobial drugs commonly employed in the treatment of mastitis. The most efficient antibiotic in vitro was the combination of neomicine + bacitracine + tetracycline with percentages of 98.4%, 99.3%, and 89.7% for the A, B, and C regions, respectively. The least efficient was ampicillin, which was resistant to 56.5% of the isolates taken from region A, 72.8% from region B, and 71.8% from region C. These results indicate the need for periodic testing of sensitivity in vitro, as these variations can compromise the treatment of animals as well as control programs for bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Medeiros E.S., Mota R.A., Santos M.V., Freitas M.F.L. Pinheiro Jr J.W. & Teles J.A. A. 2009. [In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity to Staphylococcus spp. isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.] Sensibilidade antimicrobiana in vitro de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas do leite de vacas com mastite subclínica. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):569-574. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 51171-900, Brazil. E-mail: rinaldo.mota@hotmail.com The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial sensibility of 291 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., taken from the mammary glands of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in the regions of Metropolitan Recife (A), Agreste (B) and Zona da Mata (C) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 291 isolates, 170 (58.4%) were identified as negative coagulase Staphylococcus (SCN), 84 (28.9%) as Staphylococcus aureus, and 37 (12.7%) as positive coagulase Staphylococcus (SCP). To study sensitivity to antimicrobials, the diffusion in disks method was used with 16 antimicrobial drugs commonly employed in the treatment of mastitis. The most efficient antibiotic in vitro was the combination of neomicine + bacitracine + tetracycline with percentages of 98.4%, 99.3%, and 89.7% for the A, B, and C regions, respectively. The least efficient was ampicillin, which was resistant to 56.5% of the isolates taken from region A, 72.8% from region B, and 71.8% from region C. These results indicate the need for periodic testing of sensitivity in vitro, as these variations can compromise the treatment of animals as well as control programs for bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp.


Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina, p.575-582

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Arduino G.G.C., Girio R.J.S., Magajevski F.S. & Pereira G.T. 2009. [Agglutinating antibody titers induced by commercial vaccines against bovine leptospirosis.] Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):575-582. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Reprodução Animal, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Via de Acesso Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: cocaarduino@yahoo.com.br In the investigation 100 heifers were used, divided into 5 groups of 20 animals each. The four experimental groups were vaccinated using distinct commercial polyvalent bacterines: A, B, C and D, and a group was the control. Samples were collected at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 42, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 and 180 from the first injection of the vaccine. The selection of the animals for the experimental groups was done based on a serological screening with 6 antigens of Leptospira sp. constituted by non-reagent animals. The vaccine titers were monitored using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Wolffi serovars. All vaccines used were capable to product agglutinins for the Hardjo and Wolffi serovars observed at 3 days after vaccination, remaining until the 150th day; those serovars induced the highest titres of agglutinins. Vaccine D, in spite of not containing the Wolffi serovar, induced the production of agglutinins to this serovar. Agglutinins to the Canicola serovar were only observed in the animals vaccinated with the D bacterine. Vaccine D induced the highest average titers of antibodies to all tested serovars.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Arduino G.G.C., Girio R.J.S., Magajevski F.S. & Pereira G.T. 2009. [Agglutinating antibody titers induced by commercial vaccines against bovine leptospirosis.] Títulos de anticorpos aglutinantes induzidos por vacinas comerciais contra leptospirose bovina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):575-582. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Reprodução Animal, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Via de Acesso Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: cocaarduino@yahoo.com.br In the investigation 100 heifers were used, divided into 5 groups of 20 animals each. The four experimental groups were vaccinated using distinct commercial polyvalent bacterines: A, B, C and D, and a group was the control. Samples were collected at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 42, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91, 120, 150 and 180 from the first injection of the vaccine. The selection of the animals for the experimental groups was done based on a serological screening with 6 antigens of Leptospira sp. constituted by non-reagent animals. The vaccine titers were monitored using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona and Wolffi serovars. All vaccines used were capable to product agglutinins for the Hardjo and Wolffi serovars observed at 3 days after vaccination, remaining until the 150th day; those serovars induced the highest titres of agglutinins. Vaccine D, in spite of not containing the Wolffi serovar, induced the production of agglutinins to this serovar. Agglutinins to the Canicola serovar were only observed in the animals vaccinated with the D bacterine. Vaccine D induced the highest average titers of antibodies to all tested serovars.


Virulence factors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), p.479-486

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Nakazato G., Campos T.A., Stehling E.G., Brocchi M. & Silveira W.D. 2009. Virulence factors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):479-486. Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz s/n, Cx. Postal 6109, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP 13081-862, Brazil. E-mail: wds@unicamp.br Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause a great diversity of diseases in birds and are responsible for great economic losses in the avian industry. To date, several studies have been carried out to better understand the APEC pathogenesis for a possible development of tools which could prevent the economics losses caused by these strains. This review discusses the virulence factors described do date to be expressed by these strains and the advances made to understand and identify virulence determinants present in APEC.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Nakazato G., Campos T.A., Stehling E.G., Brocchi M. & Silveira W.D. 2009. Virulence factors of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). [Fatores de virulência de Escherichia coli aviária patogênica (APEC).] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 29(7):479-486. Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz s/n, Cx. Postal 6109, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP 13081-862, Brazil. E-mail: wds@unicamp.br Linhagens de Escherichia coli patogênicas para aves (APEC) causam uma grande diversidade de doenças em aves e são responsáveis por grandes prejuízos na indústria aviária. Nos últimos anos, vários estudos foram realizados para melhor entender a patogênese de linhagens APEC e para desenvolver ferramentas que podem prevenir as perdas econômicas causadas por estas linhagens. Esta revisão discute os fatores de virulência descritos nestas linhagens e os avanços realizados para entender e identificar os determinantes de virulência presentes em APEC.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV
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