Resultado da pesquisa (9)

Termo utilizado na pesquisa Euphorbiaceae

#1 - Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis leaves (Euphorbiaceae) in goats

Abstract in English:

The aim of this study was to report the clinical and pathological aspects of an outbreak of poisoning by the ingestion of Ricinus communis leaves in a herd of goats at Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Within 3-5 hours after ingesting the sprouts and young shrubs of the plant, twenty Toggenburg female goats and two adults crossbred wethers presented acute neurological clinical signs, which were initially characterized by decreased locomotor activity that later evolved to severe ataxia, depression, incoordination and staggering gait. Four goat that died spontaneously were necropsied. Gross lesions were unspecific and consisted in focal areas of lungs edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and congestion and enlargement of liver. The contents of the rumen, reticulum and omasum were dry and contained leaves of the plant. Histologically there were no lesions in the CNS. In the liver, the main lesion consisted in cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis of hepatocytes. Eighteen goats recovered after a supportive therapy with activated charcoal, glycated isotonic solution, dexamethasone and vitamin B12. There is no specific therapy for poisoning by R. communis, however supportive and symptomatic treatments are recommended and should be based on the clinical signs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar os aspectos clínicos e patológicos de um surto de intoxicação pelas folhas de Ricinus communis em um rebanho de caprinos em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Três a cinco horas após a ingestão dos brotos e arbustos jovens da planta, vinte cabras da raça Toggenburg e dois machos mestiços apresentaram quadro clínico neurológico agudo caracterizado principalmente pela diminuição da atividade locomotora, grave ataxia, depressão, incoordenação e marcha cambaleante. Quatro caprinos morreram espontaneamente e foram necropsiados. Macroscopicamente, as lesões eram inespecíficas e consistiam em áreas focais de edema pulmonar, hemorragias petequiais epicárdicas e aumento do volume e congestão do fígado. Os conteúdos do rumem, retículo e omaso eram ressecados e continham folhas da planta. Histologicamente, não foram observadas lesões no SNC. No fígado, havia vacuolização citoplasmática e necrose de hepatócitos. Dezoito caprinos se recuperaram após receberem terapia de suporte com carvão ativado, soro glicosado, dexametasona e vitamina B12. Não existe terapêutica especifica para a intoxicação pelas folhas de R. Communis. Os tratamentos sintomáticos e de suporte são recomendados e devem basear-se nos sinais clínicos.


#2 - Antibiofilm activity of Croton urucurana compounds against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle, 38(9):1713-1719

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Nader T.T., Coppede J.S., Taleb-Contini S.H., Amaral L.A. & Pereira A.M.S. 2018. [Antibiofilm activity of Croton urucurana compounds against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle.] Atividade antibiofilme de substâncias de Croton urucurana em Staphylococcus aureus isolado de mastite bovina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 38(9):1713-1719. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: talitanader@hotmail.com Mastitis in dairy cattle is the disease that impacts dairy production the most; Staphylococcus aureus is the main causative agent of this condition. The genus Staphylococcus has the ability to produce biofilms, an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance. Bearing in mind that plants have therapeutic action, this study investigated the in vitro antibiofilm activity of the plant extract and compounds isolated from the species Croton urucurana, native to the Brazilian Cerrado, against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milk of cows with mastitis, as well as the antibiotic gentamycin and vancomicyn. The antibiofilm activity was evaluated by means of violet crystal and the counting of Colony Forming Units. The images were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The C. urucurana crude extract and fraction displayed better antibiofilm effect than gentamycin; their antibiofilm action was similar to the action of vancomycin. Compared with all the assessed treatments, the isolated compound α-Costol was significantly more active it reduced six logarithmic cycles of the bacterial population composing the biofilm. The phytocomplexs and the α-Costol substance isolated from Croton urucurana are promising in the fight against one of the main etiological agents of bovine mastitis.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Nader T.T., Coppede J.S., Taleb-Contini S.H., Amaral L.A. & Pereira A.M.S. 2018. [Antibiofilm activity of Croton urucurana compounds against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from mastitis in dairy cattle.] Atividade antibiofilme de substâncias de Croton urucurana em Staphylococcus aureus isolado de mastite bovina. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 38(9):1713-1719. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Estadual “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil. E-mail: talitanader@hotmail.com A mastite bovina é a enfermidade que causa maior impacto na produção leiteira, sendo o microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus o mais prevalente. Este gênero possui a capacidade de produzir biofilmes que é um importante mecanismo de resistência aos antibióticos. Considerando a capacidade terapêutica das plantas, a espécie Croton urucurana, nativa do Cerrado, foi alvo do presente estudo, que teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antibiofilme in vitro do extrato vegetal e substâncias isoladas desta espécie, frente Staphylococcus aureus, isolados de leite de vacas com mastite, bem como dos antibióticos gentamicina e vancomicina. A atividade antibiofilme foi avaliada por meio do cristal violeta e da contagem de unidades formadoras de colônia. As imagens foram obtidas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O extrato bruto e frações de C. urucurana apresentaram atividade antibiofilme superior à gentamicina e semelhante à vancomicina, enquanto a substância isolada α-Costol foi significativamente mais ativa quando comparada aos demais tratamentos avaliados, reduzindo cerca de 6 ciclos logarítmicos da população bacteriana em biofilme. Conclui‑se que os fitocomplexos e a substância α-Costol isolados de Croton urucurana são promissores no combate a um dos principais agentes etiológicos da mastite bovina.


#3 - Study of the anthelminthic activity of the ethanol extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) on Haemonchus contortus in sheep of the Paraiba semiarid, Brazil, 34(11):1051-1055

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Ribeiro A.R.C., Andrade F.D., Medeiros M.C., Camboim A.S., Pereira Jr F.A., Athayde A.C.R., Rodrigues O.G. & Silva W.W. 2014. [Study of the anthelminthic activity of the ethanol extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) on Haemonchus contortus in sheep of the Paraiba semiarid, Brazil.] Estudo da atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato etanólico de Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) sob Haemonchus contortus em ovinos no semiárido paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(11):1051-1055. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Rodovia Patos-Teixeira, Km Zero, Jatobá, Patos PB 58700-970, Brazil. E-mail: a.raquel.ribeiro@hotmail.com This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Jatropha mollissima through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Initially we investigated the concentration of extract with bioactive effect, through the toxicity evolution test of the ethanol extract of J. mollissima on the microcrustacean Artemia salina, obtaining CL50 concentration of 660.80µg/ml, which was tested in fecal cultures containing infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and in animals for the verification of OPG reduction. For in vivo test, the extract was dissolved in water to obtain concentrations of 660.80µg/ml and 1321.6µg/ml. Feces were collected weekly and blood was collected every fifteen days. As a result of in vitro test, the ethanol extract of the stem of J. mollissima proved toxic on A. salina, with CL50 less than 1000µg/ml and inhibited the eggs hatching and the development of larvae of H. contortus, presenting an efficiency of 70.77%. In vivo test revealed that the extract is also effective in sheep, with a significant reduction in the count of OPG after 28 days of experiment, 47 and 44% of reduction in the groups treated with the extract, 7.5% in the untreated group of animals and 40.6% with ivermectin. Even parasitized, the animals remained clinically healthy and without anemia. The ethanol extract of the stem of Jatropha mollissima may represent an alternative to the control of sheep worms, because it slows the parasitic resistance.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Ribeiro A.R.C., Andrade F.D., Medeiros M.C., Camboim A.S., Pereira Jr F.A., Athayde A.C.R., Rodrigues O.G. & Silva W.W. 2014. [Study of the anthelminthic activity of the ethanol extract of Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) on Haemonchus contortus in sheep of the Paraiba semiarid, Brazil.] Estudo da atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato etanólico de Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) sob Haemonchus contortus em ovinos no semiárido paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(11):1051-1055. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Rodovia Patos-Teixeira, Km Zero, Jatobá, Patos PB 58700-970, Brazil. E-mail: a.raquel.ribeiro@hotmail.com Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, avaliar o efeito anti-helmíntico de Jatropha mollissima por meio de experimentos in vitro e in vivo. Inicialmente foi investigada a concentração de extrato com efeito bioativo, pelo teste de evolução da toxicidade do extrato etanólico de J. mollissima sobre o microcrustáceo Artemia salina, obtendo uma CL50 de 660,80µg/ml, que foi testada em coproculturas contendo larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus e em animais para a verificação da redução do OPG. Para o teste in vivo o extrato foi dissolvido em água para se obter as concentrações 660,80µg/ml e 1321,6µg/ml, foram coletadas fezes semanalmente e sangue quinzenalmente. Como resultados dos testes in vitro, o extrato etanólico do caule de Jatropha mollissima mostrou-se tóxico sobre A. salina, com CL50 abaixo de 1000 µg/ml e inibiu a eclosão de ovos e o desenvolvimento de larvas de H. contortus, apresentando uma eficiência de 70,77%. O teste in vivo revelou que o extrato é também eficaz em ovinos, com redução significativa na contagem de OPG após 28 dias de experimento, 47 e 44% de redução nos grupos tratados com o extrato, 7,5% no grupo de animais não tratados e 40,6% com a ivermectina. Mesmo parasitados, os animais permaneceram clinicamente saudáveis e sem anemia. O extrato etanólico do caule de Jatropha mollissima pode representar uma alternativa ao controle da verminose ovina, pois retarda a resistência parasitária.


#4 - Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) in cattle, 34(9):827-831

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Albuquerque S.S.C., Rocha B.P., Albuquerque R.F., Oliveira J.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Riet-Correa F., Evêncio-Neto J. & Mendonça F.S. 2014. Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) in cattle. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(9):827-831. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil. E-mail: fabio.mendonca@pq.cnpq.br The aim of this study is to report cases of spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Ricinus communis (castor beans) in Paraíba, a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cases were observed in 2 herds on neighboring properties in 2013. Clinical signs developed within 6-24 h and consisted of weakness, tachycardia, dyspnea, profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, depression, instability, cramps, permanent lateral recumbency and death within 48-72 h. Of the 60 cattle at risk, 19 were affected and 14 died. Five fully recovered after the course of 12 days. Three animals were necropsied. The main gross lesions were hemopericardium, hemothorax, pulmonary edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and endocardium, ecchymoses at the papillary muscles and suffusions on the intercostal muscles. Hemorrhages were also observed in the abdominal cavity, spleen and mucosa of the abomasum and small intestine. The rumen content was liquid with a large amount of castor bean seeds. There were circular, whitish and focally diffuse areas in the liver parenchyma. The main microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal coagulative myocardial necrosis with the presence of mononuclear cell infiltration and varying degrees of bleeding between cardiac muscle fibers. The abomasum and small intestine mucosae and submucosa had mild edema and mononuclear and polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. The diagnosis of R. communis was based on the history of plant consumption, clinical signs, pathology of the disease and the presence of large amounts of castor bean seeds in the forestomachs.

Abstract in Portuguese:

RESUMO.- Albuquerque S.S.C., Rocha B.P., Albuquerque R.F., Oliveira J.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Riet-Correa F., Evêncio-Neto J. & Mendonça F.S. 2014. Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) in cattle. [Intoxicação espontânea por Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) em bovinos.] Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(9):827-831. Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil. E-mail: fabio.mendonca@pq.cnpq.br O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar casos de intoxicação espontânea em bovinos por Ricinus communis (mamona) na Paraíba, região semi-árida do nordeste do Brasil. Os casos foram observados em dois rebanhos de propriedades vizinhas no ano de 2013. Os primeiros sinais clínicos se desenvolveram dentro de 6-24 h e consistiam em fraqueza, taquicardia, dispnéia, diarréia aquosa profusa, desidratação, depressão, instabilidade, cólicas, decúbito lateral permanente e morte em 48-72h. Dos 60 bovinos sob risco, 19 foram afetados e 14 morreram. Cinco bovinos se recuperaram totalmente após um período de 12 dias. Três bovinos foram necropsiados. As principais lesões macroscópicas foram hemopericárdio, hemotórax, edema pulmonar, petéquias no epicárdio e endocárdio, equimoses nos músculos papilares e sufusões nos os músculos intercostais. Hemorragias também foram observadas na cavidade abdominal, baço e na mucosa do abomaso e intestino delgado. O conteúdo ruminal estava líquido, e continha grande quantidade de sementes de R. communis. No parênquima hepático havia áreas circulares, esbranquiçadas e distribuídas focalmente. As principais lesões microscópicas consistiam em necrose miocárdica coagulativa multifocal com a presença de infiltrado de células mononucleares e graus variados de hemorragias entre as fibras musculares cardíacas. O abomaso e a mucosa e submucosa do intestino delgado apresentavam edema discreto e infiltrado de células inflamatórias mononucleares e polimorfonucleares. O diagnóstico da intoxciação por R. communis foi baseado na história de consumo de planta, sinais clínicos, patologia da doença e pela presença de grandes quantidades de sementes de R. communis no sistema digestório dos bovinos.


#5 - Intoxicação experimental com as folhas de Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) em ovinos, p.275-278

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira L.I., Jabour F.F., Nogueira V.A. & Yamasaki E.M. 2008. [Experimental poisoning by the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) in sheep.] Intoxicação experimental com as folhas de Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(6):275-278. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: iglesias.vet@gmail.com Fresh green leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) were lethal for sheep in single administrations of 40g/kg. The dose of 5g/kg did not cause poisoning, but intermediate doses caused death in part of the animals. The clinical course of poisoning was 6 to 22 days. The clinic and pathological picture in the experimental sheep was characterized by digestive, lung and heart disturbances, and also by slight microscopic liver and renal regressive alterations. These findings are similar to those observed in experiments with the seeds of Jatropha curcas in goats, sheep and calves, and with the fruits and leaves of Jatropha glauca and Jatropha aceroides in goats, performed by other authors. A comparison indicates that, independently of the plant species, the leaves of Jatropha spp. contain toxic compounds similar to those found in the seeds.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira L.I., Jabour F.F., Nogueira V.A. & Yamasaki E.M. 2008. [Experimental poisoning by the leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) in sheep.] Intoxicação experimental com as folhas de Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) em ovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 28(6):275-278. Projeto Sanidade Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: iglesias.vet@gmail.com Fresh green leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) were lethal for sheep in single administrations of 40g/kg. The dose of 5g/kg did not cause poisoning, but intermediate doses caused death in part of the animals. The clinical course of poisoning was 6 to 22 days. The clinic and pathological picture in the experimental sheep was characterized by digestive, lung and heart disturbances, and also by slight microscopic liver and renal regressive alterations. These findings are similar to those observed in experiments with the seeds of Jatropha curcas in goats, sheep and calves, and with the fruits and leaves of Jatropha glauca and Jatropha aceroides in goats, performed by other authors. A comparison indicates that, independently of the plant species, the leaves of Jatropha spp. contain toxic compounds similar to those found in the seeds.


#6 - Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos, p.36-42

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira D.M., Pimentel L.A., Araújo J.A.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2008. [Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in goats.] Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Ve-terinária Brasileira 28(1):36-42. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campi-na Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae), with the common name favela, is a generally spiny plant of the Brazilian semiarid. Mainly during the dry season livestock browse its leaves from the shrubs or ingest the dry leaves fallen to the ground. Farmers report the spontaneous poisoning by this plant when livestock has access to shrubs or branches that had been cut. Different parts of the ground fresh plant, diluted in water, are used by people in the semiarid to hunt birds. To determine the toxicity of C. phyllacanthus, leaves of the non-spiny plant were fed by hand to a goat by putting small amount into its mouth. After the consumption of 4.7g/kg body weight, the goat had tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, nystagmus, opisthotonos and sternal recumbence. The death occurred 30 minutes after the onset of clinical signs. Fresh leaves from the same plants were given to 8 goats at doses of 0.5-2.5g/kg without causing clinical signs. Three goats showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in cyanide poisoning. Two goats given 0.5mg/kg of a 20% solution of sodium thiosulphate recovered immediately after treatment. Another goat recovered spontaneously. Leaves from the same plants were sun-dried during variable periods for 8-30 days, and then given to 8 goats. The goat that ingested the plant dried at the sun during 8 days died after the ingestion of 3 g/kg. The goat that ingested the plant, exposed to the sun for 9 days, showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 1.13g/kg, but recovered spontaneously. The goats that ingested the leaves exposed to the sun during 10-29 days showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg, but recovered spontaneously or after treatment with sodium thiosulphate. No clinical signs were observed in the goat that ingested the plant that had been exposed to the sun during 30 days. In another experiment ground leaves of the plant were dried at the sun for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days and given to goats at the dose of 3g/kg. Goats that received the plant dried for 1, 2 or 3 days showed clinical signs, but recovered spontaneously. The goat that ingested the plant dried 4 days showed no clinical signs. Leaves of the spineless C. phyllacanthus used in the experiments, 20 samples of leaves from spiny plants, 3 samples of the ground plant stem, and 2 samples of fruits were positive with the picrosodic paper test for HCN. These results demonstrated that C. phyllacanthus is a cyanogenic plant. After being cut the entire leaves maintain their toxicity for up to 30 days, and the ground leaves for up to 3 days. After the end of the raining season dry leaves fallen to the ground and tested within a short period were negative for HCN. These results have to be taken into account for the use of C. phyllacanthus as forage.

Abstract in Portuguese:

ABSTRACT.- Oliveira D.M., Pimentel L.A., Araújo J.A.S., Medeiros R.M.T., Dantas A.F.M. & Riet-Correa F. 2008. [Poisoning by Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in goats.] Intoxicação por Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Ve-terinária Brasileira 28(1):36-42. Hospital Veterinário, CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campi-na Grande, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: franklin.riet@pq.cnpq.br Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Euphorbiaceae), with the common name favela, is a generally spiny plant of the Brazilian semiarid. Mainly during the dry season livestock browse its leaves from the shrubs or ingest the dry leaves fallen to the ground. Farmers report the spontaneous poisoning by this plant when livestock has access to shrubs or branches that had been cut. Different parts of the ground fresh plant, diluted in water, are used by people in the semiarid to hunt birds. To determine the toxicity of C. phyllacanthus, leaves of the non-spiny plant were fed by hand to a goat by putting small amount into its mouth. After the consumption of 4.7g/kg body weight, the goat had tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea, nystagmus, opisthotonos and sternal recumbence. The death occurred 30 minutes after the onset of clinical signs. Fresh leaves from the same plants were given to 8 goats at doses of 0.5-2.5g/kg without causing clinical signs. Three goats showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in cyanide poisoning. Two goats given 0.5mg/kg of a 20% solution of sodium thiosulphate recovered immediately after treatment. Another goat recovered spontaneously. Leaves from the same plants were sun-dried during variable periods for 8-30 days, and then given to 8 goats. The goat that ingested the plant dried at the sun during 8 days died after the ingestion of 3 g/kg. The goat that ingested the plant, exposed to the sun for 9 days, showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 1.13g/kg, but recovered spontaneously. The goats that ingested the leaves exposed to the sun during 10-29 days showed clinical signs after the ingestion of 3g/kg, but recovered spontaneously or after treatment with sodium thiosulphate. No clinical signs were observed in the goat that ingested the plant that had been exposed to the sun during 30 days. In another experiment ground leaves of the plant were dried at the sun for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days and given to goats at the dose of 3g/kg. Goats that received the plant dried for 1, 2 or 3 days showed clinical signs, but recovered spontaneously. The goat that ingested the plant dried 4 days showed no clinical signs. Leaves of the spineless C. phyllacanthus used in the experiments, 20 samples of leaves from spiny plants, 3 samples of the ground plant stem, and 2 samples of fruits were positive with the picrosodic paper test for HCN. These results demonstrated that C. phyllacanthus is a cyanogenic plant. After being cut the entire leaves maintain their toxicity for up to 30 days, and the ground leaves for up to 3 days. After the end of the raining season dry leaves fallen to the ground and tested within a short period were negative for HCN. These results have to be taken into account for the use of C. phyllacanthus as forage.


#7 - Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos, p.179-187

Abstract in English:

Amorim S.L., Medeiros R.M.T. & Riet-Correa F. 2005. [Experimental poisoning by Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae) in goats.] Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(3):179-187. Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, UFCG, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: rmtmed@cstr.ufcg.edu.br Samples of fresh, dried and partially dried leaves of Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. were administered orally to Moxotó goats in single doses up to 12g/kg body weight (bw). The cyanide content of the plant samples was determined by the picrosodic paper test. The plant was collected from January to June 2004. When the goats with clinical signs were in lateral recumbency, they were treated intravenously with 50ml/100kg/bw of a 20% aqueous solution of sodium tiosulfate. Three experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, the plant was given immediately after collection to six goats; two ingested the plant after been ground and four ingested the plant without having been ground. In Experiment 2, the plant was maintained in the shade, in open air or inside plastic bags. The plastic bags were changed daily. The plant kept in plastic bags was given to 18 goats, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after collection. The plant kept in the open air was given to 13 goats, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and 9, 10, 23 and 30 days after collection. In Experiment 3, the previously ground plant kept in the open air or inside plastic bags was administered 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after collection. Seventeen goats received the plant kept in plastic bags, and 16 goats the plant left in the open air. In Experiments 2 and 3, two or three goats were used for each period after collection, and the plant was given until the loss of its toxicity. Forty goats were used as controls for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory frequencies. In Experiment 1, the ground and not ground plant had similar toxicity. In Experiment 2, the plant kept in the open air maintained its toxicity during the whole experiment (30 days), and the plant kept inside the plastic bags was toxic until 96 hours after collection. In Experiment 3, the ground plant, left in the open air or kept inside plastic bags, was toxic for 72 hours after collection. In all experiments clinical signs were characteristic of cyanide poisoning. All poisoned goats were treated successfully. In conclusion, Manihot glaziovii, which is used as forage in northeastern Brazil, should be ground and left for at least 96 hours in the open air before feeding to animals. The plant for preparing hay should be previously ground, and the hay should be given to animals also only 96 hours after its preparation.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Amorim S.L., Medeiros R.M.T. & Riet-Correa F. 2005. [Experimental poisoning by Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae) in goats.] Intoxicação experimental por Manihot glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae) em caprinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 25(3):179-187. Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural, UFCG, Campus de Patos, 58700-000 Patos, PB, Brazil. E-mail: rmtmed@cstr.ufcg.edu.br Samples of fresh, dried and partially dried leaves of Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. were administered orally to Moxotó goats in single doses up to 12g/kg body weight (bw). The cyanide content of the plant samples was determined by the picrosodic paper test. The plant was collected from January to June 2004. When the goats with clinical signs were in lateral recumbency, they were treated intravenously with 50ml/100kg/bw of a 20% aqueous solution of sodium tiosulfate. Three experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, the plant was given immediately after collection to six goats; two ingested the plant after been ground and four ingested the plant without having been ground. In Experiment 2, the plant was maintained in the shade, in open air or inside plastic bags. The plastic bags were changed daily. The plant kept in plastic bags was given to 18 goats, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after collection. The plant kept in the open air was given to 13 goats, 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours and 9, 10, 23 and 30 days after collection. In Experiment 3, the previously ground plant kept in the open air or inside plastic bags was administered 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after collection. Seventeen goats received the plant kept in plastic bags, and 16 goats the plant left in the open air. In Experiments 2 and 3, two or three goats were used for each period after collection, and the plant was given until the loss of its toxicity. Forty goats were used as controls for evaluation of the cardiac and respiratory frequencies. In Experiment 1, the ground and not ground plant had similar toxicity. In Experiment 2, the plant kept in the open air maintained its toxicity during the whole experiment (30 days), and the plant kept inside the plastic bags was toxic until 96 hours after collection. In Experiment 3, the ground plant, left in the open air or kept inside plastic bags, was toxic for 72 hours after collection. In all experiments clinical signs were characteristic of cyanide poisoning. All poisoned goats were treated successfully. In conclusion, Manihot glaziovii, which is used as forage in northeastern Brazil, should be ground and left for at least 96 hours in the open air before feeding to animals. The plant for preparing hay should be previously ground, and the hay should be given to animals also only 96 hours after its preparation.


#8 - Hemolytic anemia caused by Ditaxis desertorum (Euphorbiaceae) in cattle

Abstract in English:

Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., a herbaceous plant of the Euphorbiaceae family, caused hemoglobinuria due to its hemolytic properties, when force-fed fresh to bovines in daily doses of 1.0 to 2.5 g/kg; the hemoglobinuria appeared from the 4th to 8th day of the experiment. After a period of 3 to 5 days of severe hemoglobinuria and anemia, these symptoms disappeared in three of the four animals, although they continued to receive the plant. There was a rapid return to normal blood composition after cessation of the hemoglobinuria. The fourth bovine, which received 2.5 g/kg/day, over 5 days, had severe hemoglobinuria and anemia during the last 4 days of life and died on the 8th day. Post-mortem and histopathological examinations revealed hemoglobinuric nephrosis and liver distrophy with centrolobular necrosis of the parenchyma. A single dose of 7.7 g/kg or doses of 2.5 and 3 g/kg/day given during 2 days, caused colics and death within a few hours in the three other bovines; post-mortem examinations revealed congestion and oedema of the wall of rumen and reticulum. Case histories indicate that under natural conditions of ingestion only the hemolytic anemia occurs. Although palatable, the ingestion of D. desertorum in sufficient amounts to cause colics and lesions of the forestomachs is probably limited by its caustic properties.

Abstract in Portuguese:

Ditaxis desertorum Pax et K. Hoffm., planta herbácea da família Euphorbiaceae, causou experimentalmente em bovinos um quadro caracterizado por hemoglobinúria em virtude de sua ação hemolítica, quando administrada por via oral em doses diárias de 1,0 a 2,5 g/kg (planta fresca), a partir do 4° ao 8° dia do experimento. Após um período de 3 a 5 dias em que os animais tiveram hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas, apesar de continuarem a receber a planta (durante um total de 12 a 14 dias), em três dos quatro animais esses sintomas desapareceram. Verificou-se nesses casos uma rápida recuperação dos valores hemáticos logo que cessou a hemoglobinúria. O quarto bovino, que recebeu 2,5 g/kg/dia durante 5 dias, morreu no 8° dia, tendo apresentado durante os últimos 4 dias de vida hemoglobinúria e anemia acentuadas. À necropsia e nos exames histopatológicos deste animal foram verificadas nefrose hemoglobinúrica e distrofia hepática com necrose centrolobular do parênquima. Dose de 7,7 g/kg única ou quantidades de 2,5 e 3 g/kg/dia administradas durante 2 dias seguidos, causaram em três outros bovinos quadro clínico de cólica, com morte em questão de horas, verificando-se à necropsia acentuado edema da parede do rúmen e do retículo. Pelos históricos obtidos somente ocorre, sob condições naturais, a intoxicação caracterizada pelo quadro da anemia hemolítica, indicando que possivelmente a ingestão de D. desertorum em quantidades necessárias para causar o quadro com lesões dos proventrículos ser, apesar de sua boa palatabilidade. autolimitada pelo efeito cáustico da planta.


#9 - Experimental poisoning by the ground seeds of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) in the rabbit, 17(1):1-7

Abstract in English:

ABSTRACT.- Brito M.F. & Tokamia C.H. 1997. [Experimental poisoning by the ground seeds of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) in the rabbit.] Intoxicação experimental pelas sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) em coelhos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 17(1):1-7. Projeto Saúde Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Km 47, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro 23851- 970, Brazil. The ground seeds of Ricinus communis L., given by stomach tube in single doses to rabbits, caused severe symptoms of poisoning, lethal in three rabbits which received the dose of 2 g/ kg and in one of four rabbits which received 1 g/kg; the other three rabbits which received the lower dose, showed slight to moderate symptoms and recovered. Three other rabbits, which received 0.5 g/kg, showed only slight symptoms. The period between administration of the seeds and death or recovery, varied from 12h47min to 68h08min, and from 3 to 6 days, respectively. First clinical symptoms after the administration of the seeds were observed about 8 hours in the lethal cases and in those where the animals showed more than slight symptoms, and about 24 hours in the cases with only slight symptoms. The course of the poisoning varied from 4 to 56 hours in the lethal cases and froin 2 to 5 and half days in the cases with recovery. The clinical signs consisted mainly in digestive distress; the animals showed inappetence or anorexia. Faeces were generally scarce, with bolus altered in form and size, dark, sometimes soft, with mucus. There were manifestations of colic. The most evident post-mortem findings were in the small intestine and cecum, which had liquid contents; its wall was congested and edematous, and fibrine covered the mucosa as pseudomembranes or was found in the lumen as flakes and or filaments. The most important histological changes were seen also in the small intestine and cecum. In the former there was coagulative necrosis associated with congestion/ hemorrhages of the mucosa and submucosa which also showed edema. Similar lesions were seen in the cecum, but thése were less marked, with exception of the edema of the submucosa. In colon and rectum the changes were slight or absent. Necrosis with marked caryorhexis of the macrophages, which migrated to the upper mucosal layer, was seen in the lymphoid follicles of the appendix vermiformis and in one case also of the rudimentary cecum.

Abstract in Portuguese:

SINOPSE.- Brito M.F. & Tokamia C.H. 1997. [Experimental poisoning by the ground seeds of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) in the rabbit.] Intoxicação experimental pelas sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) em coelhos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 17(1):1-7. Projeto Saúde Animal Embrapa/UFRRJ, Km 47, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro 23851- 970, Brazil. As sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis L., administradas em doses únicas por sonda intragástrica a coelhos, causaram graves sintomas de intoxicação com êxito letal nos três coelhos que receberam a dose de 2 g/kg e em um dos quatro que receberam 1 g/kg. Os outros três coelhos que receberam 1g/kg desenvolveram sintomas discretos a moderados e se recuperaram, e os três que receberam 0,5g/kg só mostraram sintomas discretos. O período entre a administração das sementes e a morte ou recuperação variou de 12h47min a 68h08min, e de 3 a 6 dias, respectivamente. Os primeiros sintomas após a administração das sementes, foram observados dentro de cerca 8 horas nos casos letais e nos animais que adoeceram moderadamente, e dentro de cerca 24 horas nos casos com sintomatogia discreta. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 4 a 56 horas nos casos letais e de 2 a 5 meio dias nos casos de recuperação. A sintomatologia consistiu principalmente de perturbações digestivas. Os animais apresentaram inapetência até anorexia. As fezes geralmente eram escassas, com forma e tamanho das síbalas alteradas, eram escuras, às vezes pastosas, com muco. Havia nítidas manifestações de cólica. Os achados de necropsia mais evidentes foram constatados no intestino delgado e ceco. O conteúdo destes segmentos era líquido. A parede apresentou congestão e edema e havia fibrina recobrindo a mucosa sob forma de pseudomembranas, ou na luz sob forma de flocos e/ou filamentos. As alterações histológicas mais importantes foram verificadas no intestino delgado e ceco. No intestino delgado observou-se necrose de coagulação associada a congestão/hemorragias na mucosa. Havia ainda congestão/hemorragias e edema na submucosa. Lesões semelhantes foram vistas no ceco onde porém, com exceção do edema da submucosa, eram menos acentuadas. No cólon e reto as lesões eram leves ou ausentes. Foi verificado no apêndice vermiforme e em um caso também no ceco rudimentar, necrose com acentuada cariorrexia de macrófagos que migraram dos folículos linfóides para a parte superior da mucosa.


Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal SciELO Brasil CAPES CNPQ UNB UFRRJ CFMV